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A beautiful, healing, nuanced essay from Lyla June Johnston (Diné / Tsétsêhéstâhese / European lineages) - "My whole life I was taught to hide my European 'side.'"

2020.10.19 05:50 amoavo A beautiful, healing, nuanced essay from Lyla June Johnston (Diné / Tsétsêhéstâhese / European lineages) - "My whole life I was taught to hide my European 'side.'"

Original source, pasted below: Writing for Peace (2016)
The Story of How Humanity Fell in Love with Itself Once Again By Lyla June Johnston
I spend a lot of time honoring and calling upon my Native American ancestors. I am keenly aware that my father’s people hold a venerable medicine as well. He has ancestry from the Great Sacred Motherland of Europe.
I have been called a half breed. I have been called a mutt. Impure. I have been told my mixed blood is my bane. That I’m cursed to have an Indian for a mother and a cowboy for a father.
But one day, as I sat in the ceremonial house of my mother’s people, a wondrous revelation landed delicately inside of my soul. It sang within me a song I can still hear today. This song was woven from the voices of my European grandmothers and grandfathers. Their songs were made of love.
They sang to me of their life before the witch trials and before the crusades. They spoke to me of a time before serfdoms and before Roman tithes. They spoke to me of a time before the plague; before the Medici; before the guillotine; a time before their people were extinguished or enslaved by dark forces. They spoke to me of a time before the English language existed. A time most of us have forgotten.
These grandmothers and grandfathers set the ancient medicine of Welsh blue stone upon my aching heart. Their chants danced like the flickering light of Tuscan cave-fires. Their joyous laughter echoed on and on like Baltic waves against Scandinavian shores. They blew worlds through my mind like windswept snow over Alpine mountain crests. They showed to me the vast and beautiful world of Indigenous Europe. This precious world can scarcely be found in any literature, but lives quietly within us like a dream we can’t quite remember.
As all this was happening, I peered into the flames of our Diné hoghan fireplace. These Ancient Europe voices whispered to my heart to help me understand. “See, our songs are not so different from your Diné songs,” they seemed to say with a smile.
In this moment, the moment I first acknowledged and connected with my beautiful European ancestors, I could do nothing but cry. It was one of those messy, snotty, shuddering cries, where my face flowed over with tears of joy and sorrow. It was the cry of a woman who met her grandmother for the first time. I always wondered where she was. What she looked like. What her voice sounded like. Who she was. And now, for the first time, I could feel her delicate hands run through my hair as she told me she loved me. I sobbed and I sobbed and I sobbed.
Intermixed in there were also tears of regret. My whole life I was taught to hide my European “side.” All I knew was that my father came from Dallas and that was all I needed to know. These pale-skinned mothers and fathers were to be forgotten, I was taught. They carried violence in their blood and avarice in their smile, I was taught. They were rubbish, I was taught. There was no need to ask questions about them or think about them, I was taught. Whenever I wrote down my race on official forms, I would only write “Native American,” as I was taught.
But then, as thousands of European ancestors swirled around me and reassured my fearful heart, I wished I had honored them sooner. I wished I hadn’t disowned them. I wished I knew how beautiful they were. I wished I could have seen through the thin wall of time that dominates our understanding of Europe. I wish I could have realized the days when Indigenous Europeans were deeply connected to the earth and to kinship. In my mind I told them I was so, so sorry for forsaking them. But, of course, they did not care. They only held me tighter and assured me they would be with me to the end.
The sweetness of this precious experience changed me forever. I have come to believe that if we do not wholly love our ancestors, then we do not truly know who they are. For instance, I get very offended when people call Native Americans “good-for-nothing drunks.” Because by saying this, people don’t take into account the centuries of attempted genocide, rape and drugging of Native American people. They don’t see the beauty of who we were before the onslaught. And now, I am offended when people call European descendants “privileged good-for-nothing pilgrims.” Because by saying this, people do not take into account the thousands of years that European peoples were raped, tortured and enslaved. They do not understand the beauty of who we were before the onslaught. They do not understand that even though we have free will and the ability to choose how we live our life, it is very hard to overcome inter-generational trauma. What happens in our formative years and what our parents teach us at that time can be very hard to reverse.
They estimate that 8-9 million European women were burned alive, drowned alive, dismembered alive, beaten, raped and otherwise tortured as so-called, “witches.” It is obvious to me now that these women were not witches, but were the Medicine People of Old Europe. They were the women who understood the herbal medicines, the ones who prayed with stones, the ones who passed on sacred chants, the ones who whispered to me that night in the hoghan. This all-out warfare on Indigenous European women, not only harmed them, but had a profound effect on the men who loved them. Their husbands, sons and brothers. Nothing makes a man go mad like watching the women of his family get burned alive. If the men respond to this hatred with hatred, the hatred is passed on. And who can blame them? While peace and love is the correct response to hatred, it is not the easy response by any means.
The Indigenous Cultures of Europe also sustained forced assimilation by the Roman Empire and other hegemonic forces. In fact, it was only a few decades ago that any Welsh child caught speaking Welsh in school would have a block of wood tied to their neck. The words “WN” were there-inscribed, standing for “welsh not.” This kind of public humiliation will sound very familiar to any Native Americans reading this who attended U.S. Government boarding schools.
Moreover, our indigenous European ancestors faced horrific epidemics of biblical proportions. In the 1300s, two-thirds of Indigenous Europeans were wiped from the face of the earth. The Black Death, or Bubonic Plague, ravaged entire villages with massive lymph sores that filled with puss until they burst open. Sound familiar?
The parallels between the genocide of Indigenous Europeans and Native Americans are astounding. It boggles my mind that more people don’t see how we are the same people, who have undergone the same spiritual assault. The only difference between the Red Story and the White Story is we are in different stages of the process of spiritual warfare. Native Americans are only recently becoming something they are not. They are only recently starting to succumb to the temptations of drugs, alcohol, gambling, self-destruction and the destruction of others. Just as some Native American people have been contorted and twisted by so many centuries of abuse, so too were those survivors of the European genocide. Both are completely forgivable in my eyes.
Now I see I have a double-duty. I must not only honor and revitalize my Diné culture, but also that of my European ancestors. This ancient Indigenous European culture is just as beautiful as Native American culture and was just as tragically murdered and hidden from history books.
And so, some years later, armed with this new understanding, I traveled to Europe. I scaled a beautiful mountain in Switzerland to see if I might hear hints of ceremonial songs in the wind. I stepped upon the earth guided by those grandmother and grandfather whispers. I plucked a strand of hair from my scalp and placed the offering upon the earth, still wet from morning dew. I ambled through the forests enchanted by the new sights and smells. And I did see glimmers of visions of the villages of yesteryear. And they were full of Earth People living out harmonious community. And, they had beautiful music.
As the sun went down, I fell back on the grass and looked up to the sky. At the time, I was going through a very painful separation from a person I loved. To my surprise, it felt as if the earth was pulling all the sorrow I was carrying down into her core where she could transform it into beauty. The sky was speaking to me about how I didn’t need to worry, that I would be happy again one day. The earth and the sky healed me that day from the great weight I had carried for months. It was a special reunion with the mountains of my foremothers.
My mountain experiment yielded astounding results: the Great Sacred Motherland of Europe is still alive and breathing and waiting for her children to come home! She is waiting for us to ask her for songs so that we may sing to her once again. She is waiting for us to scratch passed the surface of time, into the B.C. period when our languages were thriving and our dancing feet kissed the face of the earth. She is waiting. She is waiting for us to remember who we are. If you hold this descent, or any forgotten descent for that matter, I am asking you to join me in this prayer to remember who we are. I have a feeling this prayer will heal the whole world.
In 2009, archaeologists came across a female effigy believed to be the Goddess of the Earth buried inside of German soil. The radiocarbon dating tests came back. They indicate that this clay deity was molded by European hands 40,000 years ago. 40,000 years ago. This is the time she beckons us to. This is the world she hopes we will remember: where man and woman alike, held the soil in their hands and saw the value and sanctity of women and of the Mother Earth. This is the world that still flows through our veins, however deafened we have become to it. With prayer we can learn to hear it once again.
I compare this earth-based, Indigenous European culture to the witch-burning psychosis of the first and second millennia. I cannot help but ask myself, when and how did this egalitarian, earth-loving, woman-honoring culture, become the colonial, genocidal conquerors that washed upon American shores? Could it be that our beloved Indigenous European ancestors were raped and tortured for so many thousands of years that they forgot who they were? Could it be they lived in a pressure cooker of oppression for so long that conquer-or-be-conquered is all they knew? Yes, I believe so.
Our task is to shake the amnesia. To not be ashamed of our European-ness, but to reclaim our beautiful grandmothers, to reclaim our venerable grandfathers, to reclaim our lost languages, our lost ceremonies, our lost homelands and become one with the Great Sacred Motherland of Europe once again. The European diaspora is spread all throughout the world, searching the planet for something that lives inside. I promise you will hear it when you climb the mountains of Switzerland! Of Scotland! Of Tuscany! Of Hungary! Of Portugal! Of the Great Sacred Motherland of Europe! Just because bad things happened upon her bosom does not mean she is bad.
Our task is to honor our ancestors, even those who caved beneath the weight of systematic destruction and became conquerors themselves. Our task is to remember that we are those beautiful Earth People. The ones whose love and prayers were so strong that they could carry 25-ton blue stone monoliths for miles and miles and build the sacred place of prayer known as Stonehenge. That is who we are. When we remember this, the healing of our lineages comes full circle. When we remember this, we will no longer need to borrow spiritual practices from other cultures (although that can be very helpful when there is nothing else to hold onto.) When we remember this, we will remember that the fates of all beings are intertwined with our own. When I remembered this, I found whole-ness in my self—no longer a half-breed, but a daughter of Two Great Lineages, Two Great Rivers that ran together to make one precious child.
This is the story of how I became whole. Some days, it feels like both fire and water live within me. They dance and swirl around one another. In the morning when I wake up, each bows to the other, honoring themselves as equals, as beautiful. When I go to sleep at night they wish each other good dreams. They teach me how it could have been when Columbus first stepped upon Taino shores: a meeting of two long lost brothers, embracing each other and celebrating their unique cultures. They teach me how things can be for our children in the future.
Because that’s what matters most, doesn’t it?
Not how the story goes… but how it ends.
We each hold a pen. Now, let us co-author a story of how humanity fell in love with itself and its Mother Earth once again. Shall we?
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2020.10.18 15:29 GabhaNua Is Halloween really based on Samhain?

Any enthusiast for Irish folklore will have heard the idea that the Irish Scots festival Halloween, the folk celebration of the eve of All Saints’ Day is based on the ancient Irish festival of Samhain. This idea is accepted without question here but is it reasonable? Folklorist Steve Roud argues that it is a myth. He posits that it is not true that the catholic Church designated November 1st All Saints Day to "Christianize" the pagan Celtic holiday. Roud says
"Certainly the festival of Samhain, meaning Summer's End, was by far the most important of the four quarter days in the medieval Irish calendar, and there was a sense that this was the time of year when the physical and supernatural worlds were closest and magical things could happen," Roud notes, "but however strong the evidence in Ireland, in Wales it was May 1 and New Year which took precedence, in Scotland there is hardly any mention of it until much later and in Anglo-Saxon England even less."
https://www.liveabout.com/guide-to-the-origin-of-halloween-3299441

In the Dictionary of English Folklore, Roud, Steve and Simpson, Jacqueline. A Dictionary of English Folklore. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Available on Lib Gen
Halloween (31 October). The eve of a major Catholic festival, *All Saints (1 November), assigned to this date in the 8th century; next comes *All Souls (2 November), instituted c.1000 ad as a day to pray for the dead. In England since the 19th century, and increasingly in the 20th century, it has acquired a reputation as a night on which ghosts, witches, and fairies are especially active. Why this should be is debatable.
Currently, it is widely supposed that it originated as a pagan Celtic festival of the dead, related to the Irish and Scottish *Samhain (1 November) marking the onset of winter, a theory popularized by *Frazer. Certainly Samhain was a time for festive gatherings, and medieval Irish texts and later Irish, Welsh, and Scottish folklore use it as a setting for supernatural encounters, but there is no evidence that it was connected with the dead in pre-Christian times, or that pagan religious ceremonies were held (Hutton, 1996: 360–70).
Anglo-Saxon texts never mention this date. Bede notes that the native name for November had been Blod-monath, ‘Blood Month’ (when surplus livestock was slaughtered to save fodder, and some offered as sacrifices), but does not pinpoint one day as significant. From the Middle Ages through to the 19th century, there is no sign in England that 31October had any meaning except as the eve of All Saints’ Day, when bells might be joyfully rung (as also on Christmas Eve and Easter Eve). Mournful tolling marked All Souls’ Day,as a call to prayer for the dead. Reformers naturally objected to both, and under Elizabeth I ‘the superstitious ringing of bells at All hallowtide, and at All Souls’ Day, with the two nights before and after’ was prohibited (Strype’s Annals quoted in Hazlitt, 1905: 299). But prayer for the dead proved tenacious; there are scattered references from the 16th to the early 19th centuries to people praying in the open fields at night by the light of straw torches or small bonfires, especially in Lancashire and Derbyshire (Wright and Lones, 1940: iii. 109; Hutton, 1996: 372–4). Contrary to popular opinion, the link with fire is fairly late in England, the first allusion being from 1658, though implying a well established custom: ‘On All-Hallow e’en the master of the family anciently used to carry a bunch of straw, fired, about his corn’ (Sir William Dugdale, quoted in Hutton, 1996: 373). Early folklorists overstressed this aspect, pursuing solar symbolism and a parallel to the *Beltane fires.
Folklore collections of the later 19th and 20th centuries make remarkably little mention of Halloween in England (as against Scotland), and what there is comes mainly from northern counties. Most quote Scottish sources, especially Robert Burns’s poem ‘Halloween’, and it may well be that some customs detailed below were imported from Scotland to England through literary influences and fashions in Victorian times. Writing in the 1950s, Iona and Peter Opie demonstrated that Halloween was popular among children living to the north and west of a boundary running roughly south-west from the Humber to the Welsh border and then down the Severn, while those to the south and east hardly even noticed it (they celebrated *November the Fifth instead). Modern factors have eliminated this distinction, but its former presence supports the suspicion that Halloween was originally Scottish.
The most common 19th-century references are to love *divinations. All over the country, young people would lay two nuts (in some areas, two apple pips) side by side in the fire, named after themselves and their loved ones, to see whether they exploded or not; in the south, it was generally held that a loud pop was a good sign for the match, but northerners regarded this as bad. As on so many other nights, girls would put something under their pillows to dream of husbands: *rosemary and a crooked sixpence (Addy, 1895: 80), or, in Herefordshire, a sprig of churchyard *yew (Folk-Lore Journal 4 (1886), 111). An eyewitness account from Norfolk describes five men sitting all night round a pitchfork on which was placed a clean white shirt, believing that the sweetheart of one of them, ‘were she true to him’, would enter and remove it (Major Charles Loftus, My Life 1815–1849 (1877), 302–3; quoted in Wright and Lones, 1940: iii. 114–15). For other Halloween divinations, see *cabbage, *dumb cake, *sage, *three dishes.
Apples and nuts, readily available at this time, were a traditional Halloween food (hence its other name, ‘Nut-Crack Night’), and appear in several old games now revived for children’s parties. Players have to catch in their teeth apples floating in water, or hanging from a string, or balanced on a heap of flour. Whereas Scottish children disguised themselves and went house *visiting, English ones more commonly attended a fancy dress party indoors; they also traditionally played at scaring people with lanterns of hollowed turnips or swedes, carved into faces and with lighted candles inside (cf. *Punkie Night). In Yorkshire, they called this *Mischief Night and played tricks on all and sundry.
Halloween is one of the few festivals whose popularity has increased, not declined, in recent years. Since about 1980, the media have shown growing interest, shops are full of scary masks and witches’ hats, and children have taken to roaming the streets in costume, knocking on doors, saying a rhyme, and expecting money or sweets. They use pumpkins, not turnips, as lanterns. A hundred years ago, children’s *visiting customs of this type were commonplace, but they have declined so sharply that this new variant is surprising. It is clear from the use of the American term ‘Trick or Treat’ that it was a direct import from America, familiar to children from comics, cinema, and TV; a contributory factor was the tendency of schools and British children’s TV, at about the same time, to present it as a safer alternative to Guy Fawkes Night. There have been howls of protest in this country against the Americanization of British culture, the danger to children out at night, and/or the alarm caused to the elderly. Most vociferous is the backlash from fundamentalist Christians, and even many mainstream clergy, arguing that celebrating supernatural evil forces is morally dangerous, and the fact that it is ‘fun’ makes it worse. Neo-pagans added fuel to this fire by claiming Samhain is older than All Saints, and was hijacked by the Church. At the time of writing, this moral battle still rages, and many schools have opted to ignore Halloween, for the sake of peace.
See also *all saints, *all souls, *antrobus, *souling. Wright and Lones, 1940: iii. 107–20; Hutton, 1996: 360– 85; Opie and Opie, 1959: 268–76; Roger Homan, British Journal of Religious Education 14:1 (1991), 9–14
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2020.10.18 00:42 Guards_Armoured_Arma [A3][WW2][Recruiting] Guards Armoured Division

[A3][WW2][Recruiting] Guards Armoured Division

Introduction

https://preview.redd.it/ucq84pkwfqt51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=e86eed5047150644ca942e3aecdfb11fa4da9348
The Guards Armoured Division is a serious attitude British World War II milsim unit.
Our primary focuses are teamwork, historical accuracy, operational realism and enjoyable experience. Roots of the unit date back to May 2017.
To describe our unit the best, we’re a unit that is heavily influenced by history of the real Guards Armoured Division during World War II. Medium-Large Sized unit, fielding more than 30 members weekly. Feedback is heavily valued in order to shape the unit for us all to enjoy. Ranks are given according to their need and leadership skills, rather than as a reward for good performance. We have different and enjoyable supportive branches to join that won't completely take your infantry experience. Many opportunities to conduct historical operations focused on various nations. Relaxed attendance, operational seriousness. New player friendly.

Ranks and roles

Motor Platoon:
Motor Infantry Sections are the main backbone of our operations. They're operating out of their designated vehicles (M5 Halftracks, Bren Carriers & others, depending on Operation setting) and they're composed of two Groups. There are three in a regular Platoon.
HQ Section is the section which commands the Motor Platoon in the field and coordinates the operation with the Armoured Troop and Carrier Platoon. This usually holds 6-7 men, and sometimes holds a Mortar / PIAT detachment depending on the situation.
Our Motor Platoon represents the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards in main operations.
Carrier Platoon:
Carrier Platoon is an Infantry Section operating in smaller groups and utilizing the nimble Universal Carriers. They often carry out Scouting duties before major engagements. On foot, without their Universal Carriers, these lads still create a solid threat to the enemy troops, and are in no way less prepared for contact than their Halftracked counterparts.
Our Carrier Platoon represents the 1st Battalion, Welsh Guards in main operations.
Armoured Troop:
Armoured Troops are utilized in majority of our operations, using a wide variety of vehicles depending on their task. (Such as Sherman I or Sherman Vc Firefly or Stuart VI) Their primary role in the main operations is to take the vanguard in major advances, but may also be deployed as Armoured Reconnaissance Troop if the situation requires it.
Our Armoured Troop represents the 2nd (Armoured) Battalion, Grenadier Guards in main operations.
Royal Army Medical Corps:
Our medical branch. Their task is to keep everyone in the Battlegroup up in good shape and providing medical service.

Guards Armoured Division during \"The Great Swan\", 1944.

Missions

Our attendance policy is far from being strict. We are aware of the real life issues that everybody may have at any chosen point of their life, as well as their regular out-of-game duties. We can understand whenever somebody isn’t able to play the whole week due to their work schedule.

Our schedule:

  • Wednesday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Bonus Mission - Not part of the regular schedule. Announced beforehand.
  • Friday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Main Mission - Main missions, mostly cover Guards Armoured Division.
  • Saturday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Bonus Mission - Not part of the regular schedule. Announced beforehand.
  • Sunday - 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST - Training / Exercise - Not part of the regular schedule.

Guards Armoured Division advancing towards Veghel, Operation Market Garden.

Requirements & joining

It is required that applicants are at age of at least 15 and have a working microphone. We expect that the applicants can act mature and serious during the operations, as well as respectful towards the other members of the unit throughout the whole stay.
If you’re willing to join - make sure to join our Discord found in Links & media part of this post.
A new member starts at the rank of Recruit. Recruits are gentlemen that had just joined the unit and hadn't completed their basic training course yet.
Recruits have low priority in different matters - Guardsmen have priority over them. Basic special (non-branch) roles such as machine gunners can be taken as long as a Guardsman ranked member isn't interested in filling that position during the operation.
A recruit should never be afraid to ask different game related matters, such as procedures or game mechanics.

Links & media

Teamspeak: guards.tsdns.pl
Discord: https://discord.gg/BbMgf2W
Steam group: https://steamcommunity.com/groups/guardsad
Modpack: https://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=1936939163
Twitter: https://twitter.com/A3GuardsAD
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2020.10.17 18:24 vb7200 Starr Hill Hauntings

In a little town in Upstate New York, about two minutes north of Utica, there is a little town called Remsen, that is home to quite the local hot spot for unexplained activity. Starr Hill know locally, is a point on Starr Hill Road, in Remsen, NY where the Penn Mountain State Forest meets the road. There are two parking areas, both with impressive views of the Mohawk Valley. Two look outs exist, one along the actual road, and another up the trail that turns off the road and goes into the trees. Locally, we refer to them as the 1st and 2nd look out (1st being the one by the road, 2nd being the one in the forest), so I will be referring to them as such here. Up this trail is also a cemetery, a small cluster of buildings (if you can call them that), a small body of water known as Hatch's Pond, and a radar dome with sign from the US Air Force prohibiting anyone to get close to it. All of these locations play a part in the activity.
Over the years, this location has been the source of many urban myths and legends. Stories vary from hearing screams in the woods in the middle of the night, to floating orbs of light crossing the road and disappearing into the woods. I will outline all of these phenomena with some possible explanations.
The Orbs: Undoubtedly, the most popular story is that of the mysterious floating orbs of light that can be seen alongside the road at the top of the hill. Accounts seem to all be the same; 2-3 orbs of light, floating about 6 feet above the road appear seemingly out of nowhere. They appear to almost dance around, and slowly move across the road and disappear into the trees. I have personally seen them. While parked at the 1st look out, facing down the road, I saw two of these orbs float slowly across the road, and into the trees, just like the stories had told. What could be causing this? The general theory is that they are the lantern of a Daniel Roberts, a 19th century doctor who lived in the area and practiced holistic medicines and herbal remedies. Locals called him the "Witch Doctor", and claimed he also showed interest in the occult. In 1820, he was traveling on the road and was thrown from his horse. He broke his leg and died at the age of 45. He often traveled at night with a lantern, and hung one from a window in his home. People say his sprit is the one carrying these orbs as if they are lanterns, still traveling that same path he did so many years ago.
Another popular story is that the lanterns are produced by the Baron Von Steuben, a Revolutionary War general who lived and was buried in the area. Sometime after his death in the early 1900's, they moved his body from it's original place to a memorial that had been constructed in his honor. His final wishes were strictly against this, as he wanted a burial that a normal man would receive. Legend states that these lanterns are the Baron, searching for his body.
One thing is certain: these lights cannot be coming from a vehicle. They are too far spread apart to be headlights, and have a distinct flicker to them, like candle light. It has often been speculated that they are being produced by a car driving through the area, however they do not produce light in the same way that a vehicle's head lights would. There are no other roads in the direction that you'd be able to see from that spot on the road, and any oncoming traffic isn't visible until they're right in front of you, due the the crest of the hill.
The Screams: Another popular occurrence, people often report hearing blood curtailing screams all throughout Penn Mountain Forest. Centered mostly around the cemetery, reports claim that the screams of a woman can be heard at random hours of the night. They have been reported in other areas, but most are near the cemetery. The theory explaining these, is that back in the 60's and 70's, a man by the name of Bernard "Barny" Hatch, who lived near by, would go and kidnap women from the surrounding areas of New Hartford and Utica. He would bring them into the woods, and kill/torture/burry them there. Only one of these heinous crimes was ever pinned on him. This was the Murder of Mary Rose Turner. On April 26, 1973, Hatch killed and dragged the dead body of Turner up to near by Potato Hill Road being his car, up and down the road. He then buried her body in the woods alongside the road and an intersection. He is currently serving a life sentence in State Prison, but many believe he is responsible for other unsolved murders of women and children in the area during that time. The screams are said to be that of his many victims, who never received justice for these acts.
The Rocking Chair: There is a cemetery along side a trail that goes up into the Penn Mountain State Forest. This cemetery dates back to the mid to late 1800's, and has a slew of graves from this time period. There was once a rocking chair here, and it was said that anyone who sat in it would die within the next 24 hours. Today, it is no longer there. The common reason for this, is that a young lady had gone there with a group of friends, and they had dared her to sit in the chair. Knowing the legend and dismissing it, she sat in the chair. It's said that the next day, that girl was killed in a car accident. The father learned of this, went up to the cemetery, and destroyed the chair, so it would not happen to anyone else. Evidence of this is scarce and almost non-existent, however many do report that there was in fact a chair there at one point that has gone missing. No one seems to know what happened to it. There are also signs posted all around the cemetery that security cameras are in use, two of which can be seen on trees, pointed in the corner where the chair supposedly was. While it could be argued that they were put in place to deter vandalism, which unfortunately was common there. That, however, does not explain why they would be focused on that corner in particular.
Miscellaneous Occurrences: These events are not popularly reported or experienced by a great number of people that visit here, but enough have shared these stories with myself and others that I believe they deserve to be listed here in some fashion.
Hatch's Pond, nicknamed after Barny Hatch, has had numerous legends surrounding it. Instances where it was apparently used at some point by the Mafia, which had a great presence in Utica at the time, for alleged body dumping are plentiful, but no evidence to support it exists. According to many, the whole forest was used at one point or another by the Mafia for various reasons, as it was remote and out of the way from anybody. Only one story of a local tow truck company pulling a car that had been driven into the pond sometime in the 1980's could possibly have a connection to this. However, no evidence of human remains were found in it, and its accepted that someone had stolen the car, and not wanting to get caught, dumped it here. This is somewhat supported by the fact that is was a relatively expensive vehicle at the time, and it reportedly had low miles. No evidence of it being used as a body dump ever surfaced.
There is a small collection of structures near the pond, dubbed the Hermit's Village. Many people have claimed that a hermit had once lived in these small structures, and would be aggressive towards people traveling on the trail. There is no recent evidence of a person living there, and it most likely was used as a sort of hunting area, used by locals.
Reports of lights following you up the trial also pop up from time to time. Reports state that lights will appear behind you, only for nothing to ever come up behind you on the trail. There are only a few places to turn off the trail, mostly towards the beginning of it, so a vehicle turning onto another offshoot of the trail is unlikely. People have also reported speaking to man in a military uniform (thought to be the ghost of the Barron, who was buried in his), as well as a man in an old white pick up truck driving through the trail, offering to give you a ride to party that's happening further up the trail, only for people to go up there and find no one there.
Also, sprinkled throughout the state forest, there are all different sorts of concrete structures, with no clues as to what they once were. There was originally a Welsh settlement in the area, which would explain some of the stone structures, which appear to possibly be old foundations. There is plenty of of appears to be more modern construction as well, and it's anyone's best guess as to what they are.
These are just a small collection of some of the some of the things that happen up here. If you're from the area and have your own stories, please feel free to share them! If you've never been before are are willing to take a drive there, you won't be disappointed if ghost hunting is your type of thing.
submitted by vb7200 to Ghosts [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 17:39 vb7200 Starr Hill Hauntings, Remsen, NY

In a little town in Upstate New York, about two minutes north of Utica, there is a little town called Remsen, that is home to quite the local hot spot for unexplained activity. Starr Hill know locally, is a point on Starr Hill Road, in Remsen, NY where the Penn Mountain State Forest meets the road. There are two parking areas, both with impressive views of the Mohawk Valley. Two look outs exist, one along the actual road, and another up the trail that turns off the road and goes into the trees. Locally, we refer to them as the 1st and 2nd look out (1st being the one by the road, 2nd being the one in the forest), so I will be referring to them as such here. Up this trail is also a cemetery, a small cluster of buildings (if you can call them that), a small body of water known as Hatch's Pond, and a radar dome with sign from the US Air Force prohibiting anyone to get close to it. All of these locations play a part in the activity.
Over the years, this location has been the source of many urban myths and legends. Stories vary from hearing screams in the woods in the middle of the night, to floating orbs of light crossing the road and disappearing into the woods. I will outline all of these phenomena with some possible explanations.
The Orbs: Undoubtedly, the most popular story is that of the mysterious floating orbs of light that can be seen alongside the road at the top of the hill. Accounts seem to all be the same; 2-3 orbs of light, floating about 6 feet above the road appear seemingly out of nowhere. They appear to almost dance around, and slowly move across the road and disappear into the trees. I have personally seen them. While parked at the 1st look out, facing down the road, I saw two of these orbs float slowly across the road, and into the trees, just like the stories had told. What could be causing this? The general theory is that they are the lantern of a Daniel Roberts, a 19th century doctor who lived in the area and practiced holistic medicines and herbal remedies. Locals called him the "Witch Doctor", and claimed he also showed interest in the occult. In 1820, he was traveling on the road and was thrown from his horse. He broke his leg and died at the age of 45. He often traveled at night with a lantern, and hung one from a window in his home. People say his sprit is the one carrying these orbs as if they are lanterns, still traveling that same path he did so many years ago.
Another popular story is that the lanterns are produced by the Baron Von Steuben, a Revolutionary War general who lived and was buried in the area. Sometime after his death in the early 1900's, they moved his body from it's original place to a memorial that had been constructed in his honor. His final wishes were strictly against this, as he wanted a burial that a normal man would receive. Legend states that these lanterns are the Baron, searching for his body.
One thing is certain: these lights cannot be coming from a vehicle. They are too far spread apart to be headlights, and have a distinct flicker to them, like candle light. It has often been speculated that they are being produced by a car driving through the area, however they do not produce light in the same way that a vehicle's head lights would. There are no other roads in the direction that you'd be able to see from that spot on the road, and any oncoming traffic isn't visible until they're right in front of you, due the the crest of the hill.
The Screams: Another popular occurrence, people often report hearing blood curtailing screams all throughout Penn Mountain Forest. Centered mostly around the cemetery, reports claim that the screams of a woman can be heard at random hours of the night. They have been reported in other areas, but most are near the cemetery. The theory explaining these, is that back in the 60's and 70's, a man by the name of Bernard "Barny" Hatch, who lived near by, would go and kidnap women from the surrounding areas of New Hartford and Utica. He would bring them into the woods, and kill/torture/burry them there. Only one of these heinous crimes was ever pinned on him. This was the Murder of Mary Rose Turner. On April 26, 1973, Hatch killed and dragged the dead body of Turner up to near by Potato Hill Road being his car, up and down the road. He then buried her body in the woods alongside the road and an intersection. He is currently serving a life sentence in State Prison, but many believe he is responsible for other unsolved murders of women and children in the area during that time. The screams are said to be that of his many victims, who never received justice for these acts.
The Rocking Chair: There is a cemetery along side a trail that goes up into the Penn Mountain State Forest. This cemetery dates back to the mid to late 1800's, and has a slew of graves from this time period. There was once a rocking chair here, and it was said that anyone who sat in it would die within the next 24 hours. Today, it is no longer there. The common reason for this, is that a young lady had gone there with a group of friends, and they had dared her to sit in the chair. Knowing the legend and dismissing it, she sat in the chair. It's said that the next day, that girl was killed in a car accident. The father learned of this, went up to the cemetery, and destroyed the chair, so it would not happen to anyone else. Evidence of this is scarce and almost non-existent, however many do report that there was in fact a chair there at one point that has gone missing. No one seems to know what happened to it. There are also signs posted all around the cemetery that security cameras are in use, two of which can be seen on trees, pointed in the corner where the chair supposedly was. While it could be argued that they were put in place to deter vandalism, which unfortunately was common there. That, however, does not explain why they would be focused on that corner in particular.
Miscellaneous Occurrences: These events are not popularly reported or experienced by a great number of people that visit here, but enough have shared these stories with myself and others that I believe they deserve to be listed here in some fashion.
Hatch's Pond, nicknamed after Barny Hatch, has had numerous legends surrounding it. Instances where it was apparently used at some point by the Mafia, which had a great presence in Utica at the time, for alleged body dumping are plentiful, but no evidence to support it exists. According to many, the whole forest was used at one point or another by the Mafia for various reasons, as it was remote and out of the way from anybody. Only one story of a local tow truck company pulling a car that had been driven into the pond sometime in the 1980's could possibly have a connection to this. However, no evidence of human remains were found in it, and its accepted that someone had stolen the car, and not wanting to get caught, dumped it here. This is somewhat supported by the fact that is was a relatively expensive vehicle at the time, and it reportedly had low miles. No evidence of it being used as a body dump ever surfaced.
There is a small collection of structures near the pond, dubbed the Hermit's Village. Many people have claimed that a hermit had once lived in these small structures, and would be aggressive towards people traveling on the trail. There is no recent evidence of a person living there, and it most likely was used as a sort of hunting area, used by locals.
Reports of lights following you up the trial also pop up from time to time. Reports state that lights will appear behind you, only for nothing to ever come up behind you on the trail. There are only a few places to turn off the trail, mostly towards the beginning of it, so a vehicle turning onto another offshoot of the trail is unlikely. People have also reported speaking to man in a military uniform (thought to be the ghost of the Barron, who was buried in his), as well as a man in an old white pick up truck driving through the trail, offering to give you a ride to party that's happening further up the trail, only for people to go up there and find no one there.
Also, sprinkled throughout the state forest, there are all different sorts of concrete structures, with no clues as to what they once were. There was originally a Welsh settlement in the area, which would explain some of the stone structures, which appear to possibly be old foundations. There is plenty of of appears to be more modern construction as well, and it's anyone's best guess as to what they are.
These are just a small collection of some of the some of the things that happen up here. If you're from the area and have your own stories, please feel free to share them! If you've never been before are are willing to take a drive there, you won't be disappointed if ghost hunting is your type of thing.
submitted by vb7200 to UrbanMyths [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 15:23 threaddo Post-Match Thread: Celtic 0-2 Rangers [Premiership, Round 11]

FT: Celtic 0-2 Rangers

Celtic Score Rangers
0-[1] C. Goldson 9'
0-[2] C. Goldson 54'
Date: 17/10/2020 — 13:30 CEST, 07:30 EDT, 12:30 BST, 17:00 IST
Competition: Premiership (Round 11)
Venue: Celtic Park (Glasgow)
Referee: J. Beaton

Lineups

Celtic Notes Rangers Notes
LWWWW WWWWW
Manager: N. Lennon Manager: S. Gerrard
1 V. Barkas 1 A. McGregor
4 S. Duffy YC 85' 2 J. Tavernier A 9'
93 D. Laxalt 6 C. Goldson G 9'; G 54'
35 K. Ajer 5 F. Helander
57 S. Welsh 31 B. Barišić
30 J. Frimpong 10 S. Davis
8 S. Brown YC 61' 37 S. Arfield YC 60'
42 C. McGregor 18 G. Kamara
27 M. Elyounoussi SUB 56' 20 A. Morelos YC 85'
21 O. Ntcham SUB 67' 21 B. Barker SUB 62'
11 P. Klimala SUB 67' 14 R. Kent

Substitutes

Celtic: A. Ajeti (SUB 56'), T. Rogić (SUB 67'), L. Griffiths (SUB 67'), E. Henderson, D. Turnbull, I. Soro, A. Ralston, S. Bain, G. Taylor
Rangers: R. Jack (SUB 62'), C. Bassey, J. Defoe, L. Balogun, C. Itten, J. McLaughlin, I. Hagi, J. Aribo, J. Jones

Timeline

9': Goal! C. Goldson scores [J. Tavernier assist] — Celtic 0-[1] Rangers .
54': Goal! C. Goldson scores — Celtic 0-[2] Rangers .
56': Substitution for Celtic: A. Ajeti in, M. Elyounoussi out.
60': Yellow card shown to S. Arfield ( Rangers).
61': Yellow card shown to S. Brown ( Celtic).
62': Substitution for Rangers: R. Jack in, B. Barker out.
67': Substitution for Celtic: T. Rogić in, O. Ntcham out.
67': Substitution for Celtic: L. Griffiths in, P. Klimala out.
85': Yellow card shown to S. Duffy ( Celtic).
85': Yellow card shown to A. Morelos ( Rangers).
submitted by threaddo to soccer [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 13:50 BwniCymraeg WB056 - Parliamentary Transparency (Wales) Bill 2020 @ Stage 2

Parliamentary Transparency (Wales) Bill 2020

An Act of the Senedd Cymru to ban Members of the Senedd Cymru from trading in stocks, strengthen financial declaration rules and expanding measures against lobbying for former MSs
Having been passed by the Senedd Cymru and having received the assent of Her Majesty, it is enacted as follows:
Section 1: Stocks
(1) All stock transactions made by parliamentarians, or on behalf of parliamentarians, must be reported to the appropriate commissioner within 28 days of the stock transaction being completed.
(2) The appropriate commissioner should endeavour to ensure the Register of Members’ Financial Interests is updated within 10 working days of receiving information from a parliamentarian on any stock transactions.
Section 2: Register of Members’ Financial Interests
(1) Any parliamentarian has a duty to report all financial interests to the appropriate commissioner.
(2) Withholding any such interest is forbidden and anyone aware of such behaviour must report it to the appropriate committee as well as the appropriate commissioner.
Section 3: Lobbying
(1) A Parliamentarian is forbidden from undertaking paid lobbying on behalf of any company.
(2) A former Parliamentarian is forbidden from undertaking paid lobbying on behalf of any company until the date of the first assembly election that they are not a sitting MLA for on the day of the dissolution of parliament for that election.
(3) Section 3 only applies to current and future parliamentarians.
Section 4: Definitions
(1) In this Act:
(a) "parliamentarian" means a Member of the Senedd.
(b) "appropriate committee" means the Standards of Conduct Committee for the Senedd Cymru.
(c) "appropriate commissioner" means the Senedd Commissioner for Standards.
(d) "lobbying" means the activity defined in section 2 of the Transparency of Lobbying, Non-Party Campaigning and Trade Union Administration Act 2014
Section 5: Commencement and Short Title
(1) This act shall come into force three months after Royal Assent.
(2) This Act shall be known as the Parliamentary Transparency (Wales) Bill 2020.
This bill was written by The Right Honourable Sir model-willem KD OM CMG CBE PC MSP on behalf of the Welsh Liberal Democrats, and The Right Honourable Sir Tommy2Boys, The Earl of Warrington, KBE CT PC MSP MP on behalf of the Welsh Conservatives.
The Stage One reading may be found here.
Amendments for this bill are to be modmailed by the 19th of October. Debate may begin on submitted amendments.
submitted by BwniCymraeg to MHOCSenedd [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 02:49 easysorrow Cardigan Welsh Corgi

Hi there everyone! I’m wondering if this would be the most accurate place to post this and get a response. My partner and myself have recently discussed getting a dog which includes us discussing breeds best for us/our situation (this included a date night powerpoint presentation from both parties and a discussion). With this research we did pricing/when we want to have it and so forth. We have everything sort of priced out for us but we can’t find any prices for Cardigan Welsh Corgis in Canada. Does anyone have any information that could help? I reached out to breeders through CKC I just haven’t gotten a response in over a week. Thank you so much in advance!!
submitted by easysorrow to corgi [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 00:21 chainchompsky1 The Formal Launch of Justice for Wales! Plus Logos!

Join our movement here! https://discord.gg/CC5avq
M: Do split up the mods for the three of us, I just happened to post it.
An assembled group of supporters and reporters are assembled outside the Senedd. The MS for Blaenau Gwent, Lord Houston, begins addressing reporters.
Hello everyone! Today is a big day for Wales. With the Electoral Commission having announced an October date, we have so much to accomplish and so little time to do it. In order to do so, the pro devolution side has organized a crack team of campaigners who are already hard at work on branding, press, and policies. We do not take the polling advantage we have for granted. This campaign, let there be no doubt, is going to be about earning every single vote we get. The case made will be clear, bold, and exciting.
In order to facilitate this, we are launching our new campaign grouping. Its name is Justice for Wales. The title accurately sums up not just the surface level desires of this campaign, but also shows how the campaign for devolution in this context is a reflection of political justice for the people of Wales, assuring their position as equals.
We have three organizers, including myself. The others are Archism, leader of the Welsh National Party, and cuth, leader of the Libertarian Party Cymru. This isn’t an ideological assortment. We represent views across the political spectrum. Me and Archism are nationalists. cuth is a unionist. One’s long term plans for the economy and status of Wales are not as important as putting country over party, and realizing that the Welsh people deserve their own justice system.
Before I step off, Ill just remind you all that at the end of the speech we will be giving out stickers, and other assorted branding with the logo we have designed. Variations on the traditional Welsh colors are abundant, and we hope you all display them wherever you can.
I will now pass the mic off to Archism
Thank you, it is a pleasure to be before you all today to announce our team and our efforts to ensure that we get the Yes vote across the line. As my good colleague, Lord Houston, has touched on, Justice for Wales is not about ideology. It is about standing up for self-determination, recognition of reality, and respecting Wales as an equal partner of this union. That is why I could not be more excited to see the groundswell of support for this campaign group from people all across the political spectrum.
My personal reasoning is quite simple; Wales has had autonomous legislative powers for a long time now, and that has resulted in a growing amount of distinct Welsh law. It is my view that Welsh law should come with a Welsh jurisdiction - the same treatment afforded to the other devolved nations. But, you’ll hear more about the reasons why all of us support justice and policing devolution soon.
For now, let me just express how much I’m looking forward to putting the case for a yes vote forward, and promise that you can expect a vigorous campaign from Justice for Wales. If you are passionate about this issue like we are, I invite you to join our movement. Finally, I’d like to hand over to the illustrious cuth, LPC Leader and our third core organizer.
Thank you Archism. It is a great pleasure to join this cross party campaign. In this most crucial moment in the history of Wales, the members of this campaign have put past divisions aside to fight for a shared belief that the legal system must be accountable to the people it serves. Make no mistake, this referendum is about accountability. It is about whether the decisions that most affect Wales should be made in Wales, by the Welsh.
But this referendum is also about making sure that policing and the justice system is tailor made to Wales, the challenges we face and aligns with the growing body of Welsh Law. I look forward to making this argument over the coming weeks. I would like to take this opportunity to again invite all those who share in our belief to join this campaign and deliver Justice for Wales.
https://imgur.com/a/lDmXkA4
submitted by chainchompsky1 to MHOCPress [link] [comments]


2020.10.16 23:17 BwniCymraeg WB060 - Housing (Wales) Bill @ Stage 1

Housing (Wales) Bill

An Act of Senedd Cymru to abolish the right to buy scheme in respect of council houses and housing associations; to establish a corporation for the purpose of housing development; and for connected purposes.
Having been passed by Senedd Cymru and having received the assent of Her Majesty, it is enacted as follows:
Section 1: Amendment of the Right to Buy (Housing) Act 2017
(1) The Right to Buy (Housing) Act 2017 is amended as follows.
(2) Insert a new section 2A to read as follows:
Section 2A: Scheme not to apply in Wales
(1) The scheme in section 2 shall have no application to Wales six months after closing day.
(2) “Closing day” shall be the date that the Housing (Wales) Act 2020 enters into force.
Section 2: Establishment of Housing for Wales
(1) There shall be a body corporate known as Housing for Wales (”Tai Cymru”).
(2) The principal object of Housing for Wales shall be to improve the supply and quality of affordable housing in Wales.
(3) Subject to the principal object in subsection (2), Housing for Wales is to conduct its activities in such a way which promotes sustainable development, good design, and equity within the communities it operates in.
Section 3: Membership and governance of Housing for Wales
(1) Housing for Wales is to consist of no less than six and no more than nine members appointed by the Welsh Ministers.
(2) One member appointed under (1) shall be the chair of Housing for Wales.
(3) Where an appointment is to be made under (1), the Welsh Ministers must have regard for the need to appoint those with experience in the functions of Housing for Wales.
(4) Housing for Wales may establish procedures for committees and for the governance of its activities.
(5) Housing for Wales must, with the approval of the Welsh Ministers, appoint a chief executive and appoint other staff accordingly.
(6) Housing for Wales is to draft and present an annual report of its financial position and present it to Senedd Cymru.
Section 4: Functions and powers of Housing for Wales
Housing for Wales, with its objects in section (1) in mind, may—
(a) acquire, deal with, and dispose of land;
(b) provide housing at an affordable rent;
(c) develop land and infrastructure associated with housing;
(d) transfer social housing assets to a local authority or housing association;
(e) enter or survey any prospective lands for development or improvement;
(f) repair, improve, or demolish dwellings under the ownership of Housing for Wales where such an action is warranted;
(g) acquire, by compulsory purchase, land or unoccupied houses;
(h) extinguish public rights of way on land owned by Housing for Wales, subject to the agreement and notification by the Welsh Ministers; and
(i) make grants, loans, provide financial guarantees, or make payments;
(j) do anything ancillary to the functions outlined in this section; and
(k) perform any function delegated by written, revocable direction given by the Welsh Ministers.
Section 5: Financial matters
(1) Housing for Wales shall not pay any dividend or profit to the Welsh Ministers.
(2) Housing for Wales must draft a plan for the charging of rent on its properties, and subject to any modifications by and approval from the Welsh Ministers, charge such rents.
(3) The Welsh Ministers may set an annual borrowing limit for Housing for Wales.
(4) Subject to subsection (4), Housing for Wales shall have the capacity to borrow money on conditions that the Welsh Ministers may think fit.
(5) The Welsh Ministers may make such grants to Housing for Wales to support the functions outlined in section 4 over the course of a financial year as they see fit.
Section 6: Powers of the Welsh Ministers in relation to Housing for Wales
(1) The Welsh Ministers may dismiss any member of Housing for Wales.
(2) The Welsh Ministers may give directions to Housing for Wales in relation to any of its functions, to which Housing for Wales must give due regard.
(3) The Welsh Ministers, in the case that Housing for Wales intends to exercise any authority under section 4(g), may make a development order on the application of Housing for Wales.
(4) A development order shall grant the purchaser of land the ability to settle on compensation which reflects the current, rather than the intended, use of land at the time of compulsory purchase.
Section 7: Commencement and Short Title
(1) This Act comes into force on the day after receiving the Royal Assent.
(2) The short title of this Act is the Housing (Wales) Act 2020.
This Bill was written by u/SoSaturnistic on behalf of the Welsh Government.
Appendix:
This reading will end on the 19th of October.
submitted by BwniCymraeg to MHOCSenedd [link] [comments]


2020.10.16 21:55 bradanforever Modern Fantasy Novel Blurb

Thanks to everyone for critiquing past drafts of this blurb for my modern fantasy (the last version went through this group several weeks back). I think (hope) I'm somewhat close with this version. Without being too formulaic, it includes: set-up, problem, consequences.
Also, sometimes there is a closing sentence calling out the genre and themes (more in mainstream fiction than genre, but I've included it in this blurb anyway).
Thoughts?
+++++++++
The magic of a special time and place changes everything.
Bradan is a near-immortal magician from Camelot. It’s 1967, and he’s struggling to make his band famous during the Summer of Love at the height of flower power. Bradan dates a witch, rides a haunted motorcycle, and has lunatic band-mates. He’s a very talented musician, but only a so-so magician.
That’s unfortunate because he’ll need more than pretty lyrics and flowers to confront a psychopathic Celtic warlord and a Welsh god hell-bent on tearing souls from whomever he can – he’s a collector of sorts. Like Bradan, they’ve near-immortal and Bradan crossed them 1500 years ago. They haven’t forgotten. Theirs is a duel through history with clashes in Camelot and Renaissance Florence. Now, its 1967, they’ve found him again, and they lead an army of specters. If they murder Bradan, they’ll catch every other soul they can – and during the Summer of Love, there are plenty of innocent and not so innocent souls to collect.
This blend of fantasy, action, and a dash of psychedelia touches on idealism, vengeance, romantic attraction, and artistic creativity.
submitted by bradanforever to fantasywriters [link] [comments]


2020.10.16 14:48 StevenStevens43 Art Oenfer & the search for King Lots grail

Art Oenfer & the search for King Lots grail
Search for Lancelots grail:
In this article i am going to attempt to locate Lancelots grail, leading up to trying to finally identify the most likely candidate for King Arthur.
Now before we go any farther, i have left links below for the previous Art Oenfers.
You should not read the book back to front.
First read those below, starting at one, and then read this one.
King Art Oenfer & Son - Part 1
Gallus the Mac - Part 2
King Art Oenfer III & the barbarcia conspiriato - Part 3
King Art Oenfer IV & V - Part 4
King Art Oenfer VI - Part 5
King Art Oenfer & the historia francorum - Part 6
King Art Oenfer & The boys - Part 7
Link for photo
King Arthur
Unhistorical:
Ok, so as with most of my other articles, i will be investigating the myths and legends of traditional British history, comparing them to contemporary accounts, and also investigating the modern day criticisms from historians and scholars.
I will begin with the criticisms below.
I will also add, the criticisms are blank statements, and completely unhelpful without explanation into how they came to their conclusion, and without proving that they have the necessary understanding in the subject to make such a judgement.
King Arthur
The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and modern historians generally agree that he is unhistorical.[2][3]
Link for photo
Arthurian coat of Arms
Y Gododdin:
So, where on earth do i begin with this?
I think i will begin with why it might be that King Arthur's earliest appearances are in Y Goddodin literature.
King Arthur
[2][3] The sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name also occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin.[4]
Link for photo
Y Gododdin
Lancelot:
And the reason King Arthur is so popular in Gododdin literature, probably has to do with Lancelot, which mythology depicts as being orphaned as a child and being brought up in the realm of the Lady in the lake.
Lancelot
Lancelot du Lac (meaning Lancelot of the Lake, Welsh: Lawnslot y Llyn), also written as Launcelot and other variants (including early German Lanzelet, early French Lanselos, early Welsh Lanslod Lak, Italian Lancelotto and Lanci[a]lotto, and Spanish Lanzarote del Lago) is one of the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian legend, where he typically is depicted as King Arthur's greatest companion and one of his greatest knights. According to legend, Lancelot is the orphaned son of King Ban of Benwick, raised in the fairy realm by the Lady of the Lake.
Link for photo
Lancelot
King Lot:
Now, the mythological Lancelot, would most likely be the same person as the legendary King Lot of Lothian.
But basically, according to the infinite wisdom of modern day historians, scholars and university graduates, this is just something Geoffrey of Monmouth quite literally made up.
King Lot
Lot, Loth or Lothus /ˈlɒt/ is the king of Lothian, the realm of the Picts in the Arthurian legend. Such a ruler first appeared late in the 1st millennium's hagiographical material concerning Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo), which feature a Leudonus, king of Leudonia, a Latin name for Lothian. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth adapted this to Lot, king of Lothian, in his influential chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae, portraying him as King Arthur's brother-in-law and ally. In the wake of Geoffrey's writings,
Link for photo
King Lots arms
Saint Mungo:
However, there is a factual and historic Saint, and founder of the city of Glasgow, named Saint Mungo.
Saint Mungo
Kentigern (Welsh: Cyndeyrn Garthwys; Latin: Kentigernus), known as Mungo, was a missionary in the Scottish Kingdom of Strathclyde in the late sixth century, and the founder and patron saint of the city of Glasgow.
Link for photo
Tomb of Saint Mungo in Glasgow cathedral
King Lleuddun:
Now, the factual and historic Saint Mungo, was the grandson of the allegedly legendary King Lot.
Hagiographic life
Mungo's mother Teneu was a princess, the daughter of King Lleuddun (Latin: Leudonus) who ruled a territory around what is now Lothian in Scotland, perhaps the kingdom of Gododdin in the Old North.
Link for photo
Saint Mungo sitting atop of the Glasgow coat of Arms
Constantine I of Picts:
Now did you read the quote where it said King Lot was the king of the Picts? Aswell as being King Arthurs Brother in law?
Well, this would be because the legendary King Lot, is the real Lancelot, and the historic Constantine I, is the surname of Lot.
Fergus II to Kenneth II
43, Constantine, 457 AD, Polydore Vergil (Anglica Historia, 1555) gives from here a succession close to Buchanan.[38]
Link for photo
Lothian from atop Arthur's seat
King of Norway:
However, nothing is known about the Historic Constantine.
It appears everything about Constantine is written under the name Lot, by the norse-gales.
And that is what Goddodin is.
It is norse-gaelic.
And Lot is also the king of Norway, as well as the Orkneys.
King Lot
Lot chiefly figures as king of Lothian, but in other sources he also rules Orkney and sometimes Norway. He is generally depicted as the husband of Arthur's sister or half-sister, often known as Anna or Morgause.
Fergus Mor:
And of course, as you will remember from the previous article, king of Dal Riata, Fergus Mor was sent by his parents to be brought up in Scandinavia, as wartorn Britain was too dangerous at this point in time.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Fergusius II according to Buchanan's count, was raised in exile in Scandinavia. He later fought with the Franks, before eventually returning to Scotland and reconquering the Scottish lands.
Erc of Dalriata:
Now, i would just like to look at Fergus Mor's father just a second.
Fergus Mor
Fergus Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fearghas Mòr Mac Earca; English: Fergus the Great) was a legendary king of Dál Riata. He was the son of Erc of Dalriada.
Eric and Alaric:
Then i would like to pop over to Scandinavia, and point out the two Swedish myhtological warrior brothers, Alaric and Eric.
Alaric and Eric
Alaric and Eric (Old Norse Alrekr and Eiríkr ), were two legendary kings of Sweden.
Link for photo
Alaric and Eric hitting eachother with horse bridles
Alaric II:
Then i would like to point out the historic king of the Visigoths, who is best known in history for destroying the Western Roman empire forever, and had a Visgothic empire that actually, in the end, dwarfed the western Roman empire, and likely stretched as far as Scotland, Ireland and Wales, but were likely opposed by the Saxons.
Oh, and also a son of Euric. Who was the son of Alaric I, who had sacked Rome in 410 AD.
Therefore, historians and scholars that have been referring to Alaric and Eric for years, as mythological warriors, are simply not doing their jobs as historians, and would appear to not be historians.
Alaric II
Alaric II (Gothic: *Alareiks, *𐌰𐌻𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃, "ruler of all";[1] also known as Alaricus in Latin, c. 458/466 – August 507) was the King of the Visigoths in 484–507. He succeeded his father Euric as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse on December 28, 484; he was the great-grandson of the more famous Alaric I, who sacked Rome in 410.[2] He established his capital at Aire-sur-l'Adour (Vicus Julii) in Aquitaine. His dominions included not only the majority of Hispania (excluding its northwestern corner) but also Gallia Aquitania and the greater part of an as-yet undivided Gallia Narbonensis.
Link for photo
Alaric II coin
Lothian:
And to top it off, it is infact quite contemporary that the norse gaelic realm of Gododdin, was located in Lothian.
Link for photo
Gododdin on map
Geoffrey of Monmouth the fantasist:
Now i am going to deal with the claim from professional historians and scholars, that just as good as call Geoffrey a fantasist.
Now, whilst Geoffrey does credit King Arthur and the boys with a few military victories, he actually say's nothing about collapsing the Roman empire along the way.
But, that is exactly what contemporary history points to.
It points to kings of Lothian and Dal riata being from the exact same family as the kings that collapsed the Roman empire, and those kings are said to be related to King Arthur.
So, what is fanciful about it? It appears our scholars and historians must think the Roman empire was collapsed by fairy kings, if they do not believe that actual real kings were behind it.
Perhaps they have been reading historic childrens stories, as opposed to adult history.
King Arthur
Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain. The legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest largely through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain).[5]
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Lady of the lake (Waterfalls in the Norwegian fjords are often referred to with ladies names)
Excalibur:
And now, on to Arthur constantine's sword, excalibur.
King Arthur
Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur,
Link for photo_(14801002423).jpg)
Excalibur
Crocea Mors:
The sword would most likely be Crocea Mors, the sword that Nennius allegedly took from Julius Caesar.
I think it would far more likely be that, than the mythological contemporary tale spread by contemporary historians and scholars that Constantines sword was a message in the sky from Jesus.
Legend
.[7] The Britons hold firm, and that night Caesar flees back to Gaul. Cassibelanus's celebrations are muted by Nennius's death from his head wound. He is buried with the sword he took from Caesar, which is named Crocea Mors (Yellow Death).
Link for photo
Constantines sword
Holy grail:
And now to the Holy grail.
Is it a cup? Is it a dish? Is it a stone?
Is it simply a treasure of great importance, as described in Arthurian literature, or is it some unknown and mystic magical thing connected to Jesus, as taught by most contemporary historians and scholars?
How do we solve this?
Well, the holy grail means different things to different people.
To Christians it is the drinking cup of Christ.
But we are not looking for the drinking cup of Christ.
We are looking for Lancelots holy grail.
King Arthur
The 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance
Link for photo
Location of the grail
Grail castle:
So, remembering that Lancelot is King Lot, let us begin the search for the divine grace, and castle of Corbenic, by finding out the most likely location for Galahads birth.
Corbenic
Corbenic (Carbone[c]k, Corbin) is the name of the Grail castle, the edifice housing the Holy Grail in Arthurian legend. It is a magical domain of the Grail keeper, often known as the Fisher King. The castle's descriptions vary greatly in different sources, and it first appears by that name in the Lancelot-Grail cycle where it is also the birthplace of Galahad.
Link for photo
Corbenic castle
Galahad:
So, to begin the search for the divine grace, and Corbenic castle, we must find out who King Lots illegitimate son was.
Lancelot grail
The authors of the Vulgate Cycle used the Grail as a symbol of divine grace; Galahad, illegitimate son of Lancelot and Elaine, the world's greatest knight and the Grail Bearer at the castle of Corbenic
Link for photo
Grail castle
Mordred:
Out of King Lots five legitimate sons, one of them is very much considered a bastard son, whos father is disputed.
So Mordred is obviously Galahad.
Mordred
As Modredus, Mordred was depicted as Arthur's traitorous nephew and a legitimate son of King Lot in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudo-historical work Historia Regum Britanniae which then served as the basis for the following evolution of the legend since the 12th century. Later variants most often characterised him as Arthur's villainous bastard son, born of an incestuous relationship with his half-sister, the Queen of Orkney named either Anna, Orcades or Morgause.
Link for photo
Sir Mordred
Arthur's seat:
Well, the most likely location for Mordreds birth would have been Arthur seat, as Arthur seat around 1600 years ago was one giant hill fort, with forts within forts, all the way to the summit.
Human history
A hill fort occupies the summit of Arthur's Seat and the subsidiary hill, Crow Hill.[9]
Link for photo
Arthur's seat
Archaeological findings:
It must have been quite an incredible place.
Archaeologists have found several hillforts within what would have been Grail castle.
And they were written about in Y Goddodin.
Human history
Hill fort defences are visible round the main massif of Arthur's Seat at Dunsapie Hill and above Samson's Ribs, in the latter cases certainly of prehistoric date. These forts are likely to have been centres of power of the Votadini, who were the subject of the poem Y Gododdin which is thought to have been written about 600 AD. Two stony banks on the east side of the hill represent the remains of an Iron Age hill-fort and a series of cultivation terraces are obvious above the road just beyond and best viewed from Duddingston.
Link for photo
Dunsapie hill fort, within a fort
Summary:
This is going to have tbc in Search for the grail part 2, as i just ran out of characters.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.10.16 12:57 finnagains Delingpole: Opposition Leader Sir Keir Starmer May Just Have Saved Boris’s Fat Arse - Coronofascists Worse Than Coronoincompetent

Boris Johnson’s ailing, flailing, hopeless administration has been thrown a lifeline from an unlikely quarter: Labour Opposition leader Sir Keir Starmer.
Up until now, the painfully bland Starmer (Labour’s replacement for the barmier but more entertaining far-left loon Jeremy Corbyn) has been playing quite a canny game, best summed up with the dictum: ‘Never interrupt your enemy while he is making a mistake.’
But now Starmer has finally come off the fence, dug out all the splinters embedded in his bottom, and chosen to rebrand himself and his party as the Forces of Lockdown.
He has done this by demanding even more radical anti-Coronavirus measures than the ones already being imposed by Johnson’s unexpectedly authoritarian regime.
Where Boris has fought shy of imposing a second lockdown — calling it the ‘nuclear deterrent’ — Starmer has decided he wants to implement immediately what he calls a ‘circuit breaker’ (ie another lockdown in all but name) lasting two to three weeks.
In the short term, this might seem a canny tactic. According to pollsters YouGov, the majority of British people support the idea of another lockdown – so Starmer is arguably doing no more than reflecting the popular will.
The regional satraps of Scotland and Wales, Nicola Sturgeon and Mark Drakeford, have taken a similar populist tack, adopting lockdown measures more stringent than those of the national government in Westminster in order to grandstand about how very much more they value human life and public safety.
Drakeford, for example, has announced that Wales is now closed to English visitors from high-risk areas. How he can possibly enforce this is not immediately clear but it’s the gesture that matters: this charisma-free nobody from the Welsh Assembly has got himself another headline and shown that while in Johnson’s England it may be acceptable to let the virus rip, in Drakeford’s Wales no freedom is too valuable to be snatched away at the drop of a high-crowned Welsh hat if it only stops just one person dying of Covid.
Oddly enough, though, the biggest beneficiary of this more-authoritarian-than-thou one-upmanship won’t be Sturgeon, Drakeford or Starmer but Boris Johnson.
For some months now Johnson has attracted increasing degrees of loathing from the right of his party. Natural conservatives such as myself who voted for him in the belief that he would deliver meaningful Brexit, tackle cultural Marxism, and restore British pride have been appalled at the dog’s breakfast this priapic oaf of a lightweight buffoon has made of pretty much everything he has touched. Most disappointing of all has been his response to Covid-19.
Johnson has claimed all along to be ‘following the science’. But up till now, the only scientists he seems to have listened to are the ones on his SAGE committee pushing ever more draconian measures – not to the growing body of equally reputable scientists (such as top Oxford epidemiologist Sunetra Gupta, co-author of the Great Barrington Declaration) who think the opposite.
The various lockdowns, semi-lockdowns, two-week quarantines, travel restrictions, two-metre distances, compulsory masks, gym and pub closures, curfews and other measures he has imposed on Britain have not endeared him to those who believe that his policies are potentially scientifically ill-founded and economically and socially damaging. Boris the jolly ‘libertarian’ who once promised — ‘Voting Tory will cause your wife to have bigger breasts and increase your chances of driving a BMW M3’ — has mutated into Boris, the humourless dictator.
Besides costing Boris the support of his base, his Coronafascist tendencies have also started to jeopardise support from his more recent constituency — the Red Wall of traditional Labour seats which voted for him at the last election on the basis of his Brexit policies and which helped give him his commanding, 80-seat parliamentary majority.
One sign of this was the resignation this week of Chris Green, Conservative MP for Bolton West and Atherton, from his post as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Leader of the House of Lords. Green’s seat is in the North West, one of the regions hardest hit by coronavirus regulations. In his resignation letter, he claimed that the ‘cure is worse than the disease.’
So far, a broader rebellion by Johnson’s backbenchers has been kept at bay by a mix of bribery, bullying and inertia. But I’m told by one insider that around 80 per cent of the parliamentary party thinks the government’s Coronavirus policies are too extreme and that whenever Health Secretary Matt Hancock stands up to speak, the loathing from his fellow Conservatives is ‘visceral.’ It cannot be long before the cracked dam bursts.
When it does, the fury of the backlash is likely to be severe. In his seminal analysis of group hysteria The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, Gustave Le Bon writes that once a demagogue has lost his ‘prestige’, what was once the fashionable idea agreed on by almost everyone, suddenly becomes anathema and those most closely associated with it run a severe risk of being trampled by the mob.
This is why, I would argue, the decision by Starmer, Sturgeon and Drakeford to take more authoritarian positions on coronavirus even than Johnson’s authoritarian government is a massive strategic error.
What they have done is enabled Johnson to distance himself from his Chief Scientific Advisor Sir Patrick Vallance and his Chief Medical Officer Chris Whitty whose nicknames — ‘Unbalanced and Witless’ — perhaps indicate their growing loss of credibility in the eyes of political commentators and, increasingly, the British public.
As Camilla Tominey has reported in the Telegraph, the rift is growing, with Whitty now pointedly letting it be known that he thinks Johnson has not been taking his expert advice seriously enough.
“I am not confident, and nor is anybody confident, that the tier three proposals for the highest rates, if we did the absolute base case, and nothing more, would be enough to get on top of it,” [Whitty] said during the televised briefing.
As if to hammer home the point, papers were unexpectedly released less than an hour later showing that Sage had argued for national measures such as stopping all household mixing, advice to work from home, and the closure of all pubs, restaurants and cafes.
The minutes – dated September 20 and 21 – revealed that Mr Johnson had not only ignored their advice against introducing a 10pm curfew, but overruled them on a circuit breaker too.
Suddenly, if only by default, Johnson’s regime has become the voice of moderation – at least compared with the Corona extremism of his leftist Opposition in Westminster and the regions.
This can only be to the advantage of Johnson – and strikes me as an incredibly shortsighted, unforced error by the left.
As an example of this, look at the piteous antics of Mayor of Manchester — and former Labour MP — Andy Burnham. Burnham would desperately like to exploit the righteous rage of all the Mancunians whose liberties have been curtailed, whose businesses and jobs destroyed, whose health impaired by the government’s draconian policies.
But he can’t in any conscience – or without attracting ridicule – because his main criticism of government policy up till now is that the lockdowns it has imposed weren’t early enough or strong enough.
In other words, had his Labour party been in power, it would have imposed exactly the same policies — only stronger — which have been making life such misery for his constituents.
It’s in working-class northern areas like Burnham’s that the rebellion to government coronavirus policy looks likely to begin. In fact, it has already started in Liverpool, with the revolt of the gym owners — who have collectively decided that no matter what the government says, they are keeping their gyms open.
At least Liverpool gym owner has had his business forcibly shut down by armed police. His crowdfunder has already attracted over £30,000 (over a £10,000 target).
The Red Wall, it seems, has had enough.
Labour — under Keir Starmer — and hard-leftists like Sturgeon and Drakeford, could have exploited this revolt of the masses by criticising government policy for the terrible effect it is having on livelihoods and health (in the form of untreated cancers, suicides and so on). Instead, they have sent a signal to voters that they are offering no meaningful alternative to government policy – just a more extreme version of it.
This will come back to bite them.
Boris Johnson has succeeded through life more by luck than judgement.
Starmer’s decision to campaign for a ‘Circuit Breaker’ — aka another bloody lockdown — has just provided him with his jammiest Get Out of Jail Free yet.
So much for that forensic brain the lawyer Starmer is supposed to possess. The man is clearly even more of a blithering idiot than Johnson is.
Socialist_
submitted by finnagains to BritishCommunist [link] [comments]


2020.10.15 14:11 StevenStevens43 King Art Oenfer & the boys

King Art Oenfer & the boys
King Art Oenfer & the boys:
In this article, i will still be leading up to "thee" King Arthur.
I will attempting to sort out more legends and trying to identify how they fit in to known contemporary history, whilst dealing with the denials of historians and scholars that oppose, and do not trust, traditional British history.
However is very much connected to the legends of King Arthur, it would be a good idea to first read the previous articles, before reading this one, as opposed to reading the book backwards.
The links are below.
King Art Oenfer & Son - Part 1
Gallus the Mac - Part 2
King Art Oenfer III & the barbarcia conspiriato - Part 3
King Art Oenfer IV & V - Part 4
King Art Oenfer VI - Part 5
King Art Oenfer & the historia francorum - Part 6
Link for photo
King Arthur
Fergus Mor:
So, this article will be dealing with the closest associates of King Arthur.
Fergus Mor in early sources
.[2] While it was suggested some believe Fergus claimed lineage to Arthur, the historian John Morris has suggested, instead, that Fergus was allowed to settle in Scotland as a federate of Arthur, as a bulwark against the Picts.
First king of Scotland:
I will begin with the claim that Fergus Mor was the first king of Scotland.
Fergus Mor
Fergus Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fearghas Mòr Mac Earca; English: Fergus the Great) was a legendary king of Dál Riata. He was the son of Erc of Dalriada. While his historicity may be debatable, his posthumous importance as the founder of Scotland in the national myth of Medieval and Renaissance Scotland is not in doubt. Rulers of Scotland from Cináed mac Ailpín until the present time claim descent from Fergus Mór.
Alba:
However, modern day historians and scholars have made the first error in only the second paragraph.
Fergus Mor being the first king of Scotland, would indeed be a myth.
But, Fergus Mor being the first Scot to rule in Alba, is not the same thing as Fergus Mor being the first king of Scotland.
And Scots and Irish people are only using the term Scotland, so that they are understood by the modern English readers, that are not fluent in the traditional British language.
But, they do infact mean Alba, not, Scotland.
And at that, only certain parts of Alba.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Andrew of Wyntoun's early 15th century Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland says that Fergus was the first Scot to rule in Scotland
Sally Foster:
Now, the first expert opinion on the subject, comes from Sally Foster.
Apparently the Annals of Tigernach can easily be debunked by quite simply pointing out the fact that the writers of the annals were obviously not even aware of the real name of Dal Riata, when referring to Dal Dalom as Dal riada.
Fergus Mor in early sources
The historical record, such as it is, consists of an entry in the Annals of Tigernach, for the year 501, which states: Feargus Mor mac Earca cum gente Dal Riada partem Britaniae tenuit, et ibi mortuus est. (Fergus Mór mac Eirc, with the people of Dál Riata, held part of Britain, and he died there.) However, the forms of Fergus, Erc and Dál Riata are later ones, written down long after the 6th century.
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Dal Dalom 580 AD
Dal Dalom:
But i wonder if Sally Foster has the hindsight to understand why she referred to Dal riada as Dal riata?
It is because the audience she is narrating to, now know Dal riada as Dal riata.
And that is the exact same reason that the Annals of Tigernach would have referred to Dal Dalom as Dal Riada.
Name
The name Dál Riata is derived from Old Irish. Dál, from Proto-Celtic \dālom*, means 'portion' or 'share' (as in 'a portion of land')
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Ulster & the hebrides (apologies i said it in English)
unauthentic:
Now, Sally Foster makes one heck of a "statement" without farther elaborating.
She "declares" that the theory that the Scots invaded Alba from Ulster, is "unauthentic".
Fergus Mor in early sources
The record in the Annals has given rise to theories of invasions of Argyll from Ireland, but these are not considered authentic.[1]
Cambridge press:
Yet, according to Cambridge university, at least some Scots originally lived in Ireland, and came over to Argyll and established the kingdom of Dal Riata.
Notes (3)
The inhabitants of what is now Co. Antrim, Ireland, were known as the Scots, a name they transported to what is now Argyll and the adjacent islands where they established the kingdom of Dál Riata.
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Satellite image of Dal Riata
Mac Nisse Mor:
Next, Sally Foster wishes to question Fergus Mor being known as Mac Nisse Mor in a different dialect.
Apparently because it was something written in only the 10th or 11th century it cannot be trusted.
Fergus Mor in early sources
The Senchus states that Fergus Mór was also known as Mac Nisse Mór. These sources probably date from the 10th and 11th centuries respectively, between 20 and 30 generations after Fergus may have lived.
Buchanan's king!!:
Now, straight away, we can see that Sally Foster is taking quotes directly from a book that was written at a time when politics in Britain were such that a kings ancestral claim could be dismissed upon nothing more than national identity.
Though, Sally Foster does unintentionally throw up a conundrum.
Her version of history is opposed by King James VI who claims descent from Fergus Mor.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Buchanan's king, James VI, shared the scholar's view of the origins of his line, describing himself in one of many verses written to his wife Anne of Denmark, as the "happie Monarch sprung of Ferguse race".
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King James VI
King James VI:
So, who was king James VI?
Well, he was King of Scotland, that later became king of England and Ireland.
During his reign we saw the union of the Crowns, which was the first step towards the formation of Great Britain as a political entity.
King James VI & I
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciaries, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, and thus a potential successor to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland,
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Union of the crowns
Colonisation of the Americas:
British and Irish expats in USA today, actually have King James VI to thank.
No sooner did King James VI take over the three crowns and begin campaigning for a united Britain and Ireland, he also began sending Ulster Scots over to USA and was setting himself up to add America to his titles.
King James VI
from 1603, returning to Scotland only once, in 1617, and styled) himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for England and Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began.
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King James VI on Scottish gold coin
Guy Fawkes:
Unfortunately, it appears certain secterianists, nationalists, and loyalists, did not want "Buchanan's" protestant king of Scotland, Ireland, England and USA that swore Dal Riatan ancestral roots.
So bring on 5th of November, an assassination attempt was launched.
Guy Fawkes
A dissident Catholic, Guy Fawkes, was discovered in the cellars of the parliament buildings on the night of 4–5 November 1605, the eve of the state opening of the second session of James's first English Parliament.
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Guy Fawkes autograph
Holyrood Palace:
Now, whilst i appreciate the professionalism of Sally Foster (was that her name?.. Scrolls back up to make sure i got her first name correct) in being discerning and not simply believing what she is told, i must however counter her doubts by trying to be equally as discerning.
In holyrood palace there was portraits of Scottish monarch's dating all the way back to Fergus I.
Now whilst i cannot find the Portrait of Fergus I, i can find the portrait for, Fergus II (Mor).
Fergus Mor
Nor was James VI the last ruler to share this belief. The Great Gallery of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh was decorated with eighty-nine of Jacob de Wet's portraits of Scottish monarchs, from Fergus to Charles II, produced to the order of James's grandson.
Fergus II

Fergus II
Ancestry:
Now, the problem this presents me, is i actually have holyrood palace assuring me that this is a genuine portrait of Fergus Mor, and on the other hand i have Sally Foster and a secterian loyalist, assuring me that Guy Fawkes knows more about British history than George Buchanan.
There is also the fact that Sally Foster is accusing Holyrood Palace of forgery.
But, Sally Foster should have still declared that there is infact supposed to be original evidence of Fergus Mor, and then explained why she believes it to be fraudulent.
Now, i will move on to the next claim.
The next claim is that Fergus Mor's ancestry can be traced waaaay back, and forty six generation farther.
Fergus Mor in early sources
The Senchus and the Duan name Fergus's father as Erc son of Eochaid Muinremuir. A Middle Irish genealogy of the kings of Alba gives an extensive genealogy for Fergus: [Fergus] m. h-Eircc m. Echdach Muinremuir m. Óengusa Fir m. Feideilmid m. Óengusa m. Feideilmid m. Cormaicc, and a further forty-six generations here omitted.[2]
Link for photo
Holyrood palace
Crimthann Mor:
Now, historians and scholars need to get working on what system they are using to determine whether or not someone is historical or not.
Take for example the 4th Century Crimthann Mor.
Which part of him is considered mythological, and which part is not?
(And i wish they would stop using the term Scotland.. In the 4th Century it was Caledonia).
Crimthann mac Fidaig
Crimthann Mór, son of Fidach /ˈkriːvən ˈmɔːr mæk ˈfiːaɪ/, also written Crimthand Mór, was a semi-mythological king of Munster and High King of Ireland of the 4th century. He gained territory in Britain and Gaul, but died poisoned by his sister Mongfind. It is possible that he was also recognised as king of Scotland.
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Cornish harbour thought to have been used as an Irish port
Tintagel castle:
And i would think it is very likely, that the fortress that archaeologists believe Crimthann Mor built, translated from Dinn Tradui, to tintagel.
Dind Tradui
According to the Sanas Cormaic,[3] Crimthand Mór mac Fidaig built a great fortress in Cornwall known as Dind Traduí or Dinn Tradui (Dun Tredui/e, fortress of the three ramparts).[4] There appears to be little doubt that it existed,[5]
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Archaeological remains of Tintagel castle
Conaire Mor:
Of course, by the time we get to 63 BC, the time of Conaire Mor, we are definitely back to mythology again.
History
The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 63–33 BC,[3] that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 110–40 BC.[4] A descendant of Íar mac Dedad, Conaire belonged to the legendary Clanna Dedad, the legendary royal family of the Érainn. His descendants in Ireland and Scotland were known as the Síl Conairi. The last Gaelic king of Scotland from the line from Conaire Mór was Alexander III of Scotland.
Link for photo
Connor Macleod
Constantine I of Picts:
Now, whilst Fergus I appears to have control of the West portion of Scotland, i am very interested in whoever it is, said to have control of the east portion.
Fergus Mor in early sources
[2] While it was suggested some believe Fergus claimed lineage to Arthur, the historian John Morris has suggested, instead, that Fergus was allowed to settle in Scotland as a federate of Arthur, as a bulwark against the Picts.
Polydore Vergil:
According to George Buchanan, and Polydore Vergil, it was Constantine I, reigning from 457 AD until 479 AD.
And as you will have read the previous articles, i will not have to explain who Uther Pendragon was.
Nor will i have to explain the connection with the Constantine dynasty.
Fergus II to Kenneth II
Constantine I 457 Polydore Vergil (Anglica Historia, 1555) gives from here a succession close to Buchanan.[38]
Pendragons:
An i will just say this.
The Pendragons were not the real names of the sons of Constantine III of the Western Roman empire.
Obviously, their surnames would have been consistant with their fathers, in any number of abbreviated forms.
But the Pendragons was a nickname they invented themselves.
So, could Uther have been Constantine I?
Epithet
[5] and the cycles based on his work, it was Uther's older brother (elsewhere called Aurelius Ambrosius) who saw the comet and received the name "Pendragon", Uther taking his epithet after his death.
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Uther Pendragon
6th Century:
But, whether Constantine I of Picts was Uther Pendragon, or whether he was not, is not something i am going into farther in this article.
That will be for "thee" king Arthur article.
Instead i will move forward to the "horrific" journalism presented by modern day historians and scholars, that appear to be merely pretending to have an actual grasp on the subject.
They say that there is no evidence of anyother king in Scotland (Alba Girrrr) apart from Ceretic of Alt Clut, who apparently met Saint Patrick.
Fergus Mor in early sources
These sources, while they offer evidence for the importance of Fergus Mór in Medieval times, are not evidence for his historical career. Indeed, only one king in the 6th century in Scotland is known from contemporary evidence, Ceretic of Alt Clut, and even this identification rests upon a later gloss to Saint Patrick's Letter to Coroticus.
Link for photo-_stained_glass,_Saint_Patrick-_detail.jpg)
Saint Patrick
Pope Celestine I:
But what i want to know, is how on earth could Saint Patrick have met Ceretic in the 6th century?
(A) there is no evidence for the existence of Saint Patrick.
(B) It was Saint Palladius that was sent to Ireland in 431 AD by Pope Celestine I in 431 AD, allegedly helped by Saint Patrick who acted as a missionary.
And in Scotland, Saint Patrick is known by his official name, as recorded by the Bishops of Rome and the Vatican, Saint Palladius.
Pontificate
He sent Palladius) to Ireland to serve as a bishop in 431. Bishop Patrick continued this missionary work.
Link for photo#/media/File:St_Palladius_Fordoun.jpg)
Saint Palladius church, Aberdeen, Scotland
Patrick the Elder:
Though i am not going deep into this either.
Even in Ireland, Saint Palladius was regarded as Patrick the Elder.
However Patrick the junior was not "Saint Patrick".
It was a pagan Patrick from 370 AD.
Dating
[17] A variety of dates are given for his death. In 457 "the elder Patrick" (Irish: Patraic Sen) is said to have died: this may refer to the death of Palladius, who according to the Book of Armagh was also called Patrick.[17]
Strathclyde:
But the point is, they know nothing about Patrick.
They cannot even get the century correct.
And Ceretic Guletic was a king in Stratchclyde, western Scotland.
He must have reigned prior to 457 AD, as Saint Palladius died in that year.
Ceretic Guletic
Ceretic Guletic of Alt Clut was a king of Alt Clut (modern Dumbarton) in the 5th century.
And it continues:
And now, all of a sudden, King Clut is actually not the only king they can be sure of.
They can now be sure of a whole host of Fergus Mor's descendants, even though earlier in the article Sally Foster appeared to think even the mere existence of Dal Riata was debatable.
But, even though they appear to have evidence for his grandsons and and great grand children, they can still apparently see no connection with Fergus Mor.
Is this denialism?
Fergus Mor in early sources
The first kings of Dál Riata whose existences are reasonably sure are Fergus's grandsons Gabrán mac Domangairt and Comgall, or perhaps his great-grandson Áedán mac Gabráin.
Stones of stonehenge:
Now, in my previous article, i "deliberately" left out Merovech bringing the stones of Ireland to Stonehenge.
I was not being naughty, i simply did not want to bring it up in that article.
Historia
With Aurelius on the throne, Uther leads his brother in arms to Ireland to help Merlin) bring the stones of Stonehenge from there to Britain.
Geoffrey of Monmouth:
Now, whilst Geoffrey does mention Salisbury as the location of the giants ring, i would like to see documented proof from historians and scholars that Geoffrey was indeed talking about the stones of stonehenge when he wrote about the boys bringing the stones back to Britain.
Only there allegedly was a stone brought from Ireland to Britain during this period.
Origin and legends
One story concerns Fergus, son of Erc, the first King of the Scots in Scotland, whose transport of the Stone from Ireland to Argyll, where he was crowned on it, was recorded.[3]
Link for photo.jpg)
Replica of the stone of Scone
Stone of Destiny:
The stone was a coronation stone, used to coronate Scottish kings.
Stone of Scone
The Stone of Scone (/ˈskuːn/; Scottish Gaelic: An Lia Fáil, Scots: Stane o Scuin)—also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that has been used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland
Link for photo
Scone palace
Scandinavia:
Now, apparently Fergus Mor was actually raised in Scandinavia.
Fergus Mor in later accounts
Fergusius II according to Buchanan's count, was raised in exile in Scandinavia. He later fought with the Franks, before eventually returning to Scotland and reconquering the Scottish lands.
Basina:
So what i am looking for, from contemporary accounts, is a Danish family from this period, that are considered royals, and have something to do with fighting Franks.
This could only be one family, really.
Basina of Thuringia
Basina or Basine (c. 438 – 477) was remembered as a queen of Thuringia in the middle of the fifth century,
Link for photo
Basina & Childeric I
Bisinus:
However, Basina left her husband Bisinus to marry king of the Franks, Childeric.
Biography
She left her husband, king Bisinus and went to Roman Gaul. She herself took the initiative to ask for the hand of Childeric I, king of the Franks, and married him. For as she herself said, "I want to have the most powerful man in the world, even if I have to cross the ocean for him".[1]
Ragnachar:
And it is likely that Ragnarach, who became a Frankish king, did so due to his close familial relationship to Basina.
Mother? Sister? Who knows.
However those that know the Arthurian legends well, should be by this point, penny dropping.
Ragnachar
Ragnachar or Ragnarius (died 509) was a Frankish petty king (regulus) who ruled from Cambrai. According to Gregory of Tours, Ragnachar "was so unrestrained in his wantonness that he scarcely had mercy for his own near relatives".[1] According to the Gesta episcoporum Cameracensium, Clovis and Ragnachar were related through Clovis's mother, Basina, a Thuringian princess.[2]
But, who Ragnachar is, and what relation to King Arthur he is, if any, shall have to wait for now.
Summary:
I would welcome Sally Foster to produce original source material to prove that historians and scholars doubting the legitimacy of Scottish, Irish or Welsh kings, pre-dates the King James IV campaign.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.10.13 22:49 IamLeven Apple Reveals Four iPhone 12 Models, Heralding ‘New Era’ for 5G Technology

https://www.wsj.com/articles/apple-event-iphone-12-expected-with-5g-capabilities-11602581403
With few people familiar with the new cellular service, Apple CEO Tim Cook sought to explain why 5G technology would improve iPhone users’ experience. PHOTO: BROOKS KRAFT/APPLE By Tim Higgins Updated Oct. 13, 2020 2:47 pm ET PRINT TEXT 95
Apple Inc. AAPL -2.65% unveiled a new iPhone Tuesday capable of connecting to a much faster 5G cellular network, which investors are betting will spur strong demand.
Chief Executive Tim Cook stood at the company’s Cupertino, Calif., headquarters to begin the webcast, streamed on Apple’s website—a visual reminder of how the tech giant’s latest flagship-product introduction differs from previous ones because of the coronavirus pandemic, which closed businesses and left people sheltering at home around the world for much of this year.
The iPhone 12 offered a new physical appearance from last year’s smartphone, moving from a rounded design to a flatter-edged look reminiscent of the iPhone 4. Apple revealed four versions of the phones ranging in sizes and starting in price from $699 for the iPhone 12 Mini with a 5.4-inch display. The iPhone 12 Pro Max has a 6.7-inch display, an increase from 6.5 inches; the higher-end versions emphasize the camera abilities.
The newest iPhone designs move away from the rounded shape of recent models toward a flatter-edged look akin to the iPhone 4. The iPhone 12 Pro and Pro Max, unveiled Tuesday. PHOTO: APPLE The greatest hype going into the event, however, has been about the device’s 5G capability. Apple’s adoption of the next-generation wireless standard places intense focus on the new technology that has been years in the making. Cellular network carriers have been scrambling to roll out 5G service across the U.S., but coverage remains spotty in the country and it isn’t clear yet whether customers will want it.
WSJ NEWSLETTER Notes on the News The news of the week in context, with Tyler Blint-Welsh.
Enter your email SIGN UP “Today is the beginning of a new era for iPhone,” Mr. Cook said.
Shares slipped as the event took place, which has occurred with previous Apple events, before rebounding. With few people familiar with the new cellular service, Mr. Cook made an effort to describe why 5G technology would improve their experience. He cited improved downloads and uploads, higher-quality video streaming, better gaming and less network congestion. Apple also highlighted the integration with the company’s new A14 Bionic microchip.
The presentation included demonstrations of how 5G iPhones could be helpful in downloading important medical images and for remotely designing factory spaces—tacit acknowledgments that some of the most likely customers for the technology might be business users who can benefit from faster connections.
How Apple Became the World’s Most Valuable Publicly Traded Company YOU MAY ALSO LIKE
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How Apple Became the World’s Most Valuable Publicly Traded Company How Apple Became the World’s Most Valuable Publicly Traded Company Apple reached a staggering $2 trillion market valuation in August, despite years of doubt from critics over whether the tech giant could continue to succeed after the death of Steve Jobs. Here’s a look at Apple’s rise to the very top. Illustration: Jacob Reynolds/WSJ “Apple almost provides like the Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval,” Mark Vena, a senior analyst for Moor Insights & Strategy said. “They tend to validate the technology, which is unfair because you could go out today and buy a Samsung phone” with 5G.
The emphasis on the guts of the iPhone marked a change from recent years where many new features involved cameras and other iterative updates. The lack of dramatic change has come as the smartphone market has matured more than a decade after Apple first introduced the iPhone.
The latest smartphone arrives five years after iPhone unit sales peaked. Mr. Cook has pushed the company to sell pricier versions of the device and to rely on software services and wearables, such as smartwatches and headphones, to boost revenue.
In a nod to those efforts, the company began its Tuesday event by introducing an updated HomePod that is smaller than its previous version of the speaker and is priced at $99.
Apple unveiled a new, smaller HomePod than its previous version of the speaker. PHOTO: APPLE Apple began selling the HomePod in early 2018 after unspecified delays pushed back the rollout following its 2017 debut. The voice-activated device was Apple’s attempt to catch up with the success of Amazon.com Inc. and its smart speakers in late 2014, though when the HomePod debuted at $349 it was considerably more expensive than its rivals.
To make the case for a pricier offering, Apple has previously emphasized its sound quality, especially when it comes to music. The device’s price has fallen since it first went on the market.
The iPhone 12 has been hotly anticipated by investors who have driven up the company’s shares 69% in 2020, partly because of excitement over the new phone. Those expectations and Apple’s success in driving up services revenue helped it become the first U.S. public company to eclipse $2 trillion in market value earlier this year.
Analysts surveyed by FactSet, on average, predict iPhone revenue will rise 15% to $160 billion in the fiscal year that began Oct. 1. That is about $6 billion shy of the record set in fiscal 2018, when the $1,000 iPhone X helped bolster sales even as shipments failed to reach a new high.
Katy Huberty, a veteran Apple analyst for Morgan Stanley, last week predicted the company could ship as many as 240 million iPhones this year, helped by customers who haven’t upgraded in several years and excitement for 5G. That would set a record, beating the 231 million devices sold in fiscal 2015. Sales at that level could send the company’s shares up 37% from Monday’s close to a market value of almost $2.9 trillion, she said.
“We expect this fall’s launch to be the most significant iPhone event in years,” she wrote in a note to investors.
SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS What new products or updates are you hoping to see from Apple? Join the conversation below.
In recent years, Mr. Cook has been stretching the iPhone lineup to appeal to an array of pocketbooks. That was on display again Tuesday: A step up from the iPhone 12 Mini sits the iPhone 12, starting at $799 with a 6.1-inch display. On the higher end, the iPhone 12 Pro starts at $999, with the Pro Max offering the largest display and beginning at $1,099.
The iPhone 12 and 12 Pro are available for pre-order on Friday, and the iPhone 12 Mini and iPhone 12 Pro Max will be available Nov. 6, Apple said.
Some analysts are skeptical that customers will flock to a 5G phone without a must-have application or service to help them see the appeal of the new technology. U.S. cellular networks are still being upgraded, and service might be disappointing in some spots for early adopters.
It is also uncertain how the coronavirus will affect sales of the new devices. The pandemic delayed production of the flagship phone earlier this year, which led Tuesday’s unveiling to be rescheduled from its traditional September date.
Mr. Cook appeared publicly for the first time since a Democratic-led House subcommittee last week issued a report claiming Apple uses its control over software on its devices in an anticompetitive manner. Apple has rejected the report’s conclusions and said it doesn’t have a dominant market share in any area.
submitted by IamLeven to investing [link] [comments]


2020.10.13 20:29 Duncs11 Welsh Justice and Policing Referendum - October 2020 - Polling information

Welsh Justice and Policing Referendum - October 2020 - Polling information

As previously outlined, a referendum shall take place in Wales over the devolution of powers of justice and policing to the Welsh Parliament, under the provisions of the Welsh Justice and Policing Referendum Act 2020.
The date of referendum poll is designated as the 29th October 2020. As this date draws nearer, additional information shall now be released on the format of the referendum campaign.
Referendum schedule
25th October, 9am - Campaigning in the referendum opens. Posts should be made on /MHOCCampaigning and with the correct tag. Posts made before then shall not be counted.
25th October, time tbc - The referendum debate will be published on /MHOCSenedd and shall run until the close of campaigning.
28th October, 10pm - Campaigning and debating in the referendum closes. Posts made after this time will not be counted. This is a sharp cut off. Do not leave your campaigning posts until the deadline.
29th October - Polling day.
30th October - Referendum count.
1st November, time tbc - Referendum declaration of result.
Campaigning
All campaigning must take place on /MHOCCampaigning and must follow the rules of this post. Posts which are posted elsewhere, or which fail to comply with any of the requirements of campaigning, will not be counted.
Campaign posts must include the referendum hashtag (#WJR2020) and a constituency/national tag. This should be in the following format:
#WJR2020 [National/Constituency name] Post title
Examples can be seen below:
#WJR2020 [National] Welsh Courts for Welsh People!
#WJR2020 [South Wales Central] She needs a maternity unit, not a separate justice system
During the referendum can I also ask that you include some indication of which way you are campaigning in your flair on /MHOCCampaigning and also /MHOCSenedd if partaking in debates.
There are campaign limits in place for this referendum. I would encourage you to think creatively about how to maximise the effectiveness of the posts you have. The limits are per person, and they are:
Debates
A referendum debate shall take place on /MHOCSenedd. Individuals will be able to ask questions (likely a limited number) and persons campaigning in the referendum can respond and engage each other in the debate. This contributes to the outcome of the referendum.
Results
There may or may not be a stream for the results, depending on if any press outlets have the capability and/or interest in doing so. If you are interested and have the capability to do so, please contact me.
submitted by Duncs11 to MHOCMeta [link] [comments]


2020.10.13 16:27 BwniCymraeg WB058 - Water Boards (Wales) Bill 2020 @ Stage 1 - Vote

Water Boards (Wales) Bill

An Act of Senedd Cymru to replace internal drainage boards and internal drainage districts with water boards; to make provision for the membership of water boards; and for connected purposes.
Having been passed by Senedd Cymru and having received the assent of Her Majesty, it is enacted as follows:
Section 1: Establishment of water board districts
(1) The Welsh Ministers, following the preparation of a scheme prepared by the Natural Resources Body for Wales (“NRW”) and consultation with the communities which lie in the area, may by regulations establish, modify, or abolish water board districts.
(2) Water board districts must be—
(a) a contiguous geographic area;
(b) applicable to a body or related bodies of water, floodplain, or watercourse;
(c) inclusive of areas likely to be directly impacted by any land drainage and flood prevention activities; and
(d) of benefit to the population which they conduct activities in.
Section 2: Establishment of water boards
(1) The Welsh Ministers, following both the preparation of a scheme prepared by NRW and consultation with the communities which lie in water board district, may by regulations establish, modify, or abolish water boards and their constitutions.
(2) In each water board district, there must be a water board.
(3) Water boards are to provide local supervision on matters of drainage and flood prevention in the water board district, in accordance with guidance from local authorities and NRW.
(4) Each water board shall be a body corporate.
Section 3: Functions of water boards
(1) Water boards are, in light of their obligation within 1(3), to do the following—
(a) maintain and improve existing drainage and flood defence infrastructure within their districts;
(b) construct new infrastructure for drainage and flood defence in their districts;
(c) adhere to a local flood risk management strategy in their districts;
(d) do any function required by drainage and flood prevention guidance issued by NRW;
(e) dispose of waste or soil generated in the course of developing drainage infrastructure or works;
(f) do any function delegated to it by a local authority;
(g) issue orders to any person to maintain works, bridges, vegetation or soil, or remove obstructions in a watercourse where it is necessary for the protection of persons and the environment from flood damage;
(h) issue any community guidance on reducing flood damage and maintaining drainage infrastructure;
(i) do any other thing incidental to the other functions, including making provision for remuneration.
(2) Water boards shall provide information to the Auditor General for Wales as is required from time to time.
(3) Water boards may, subject to agreement from the body in question, any relevant local authority, and NRW, delegate functions in its water board district to another body.
(4) To finance activities under subsection (1), water boards may borrow such funds as are required, charge an annual fee from the county council or county borough council or councils in which they are located, or levy water board rates in respect of the land value of agricultural land in the water board district.
(4) A person who is subject to an order made under (1)(g) but fails to comply is guilty of an offence.
Section 4: Composition of water boards
(1) Water boards are to be composed of—
(a) no less than 10 and no more than 20 members drawn from relevant local areas within the water board district (“local members”); and
(b) 1 member appointed by NRW.
(2) The amount of local members must be an even number and they may serve a term of two years from the date of appointment.
(3) Half of the local members are to be appointed by the relevant county council or county borough council or councils in which the water board district lies but must not hold any other office.
(4) The half of the local members not appointed in the process within (3) shall be appointed through—
(a) collating a list of registered electors who are resident within the water board district;
(b) randomising the list of residents in (a) with a publicly available technique; and
(c) randomly selecting a resident, and subject to their consent within a two week period, appointing them to serve on the water board.
(5) Where there is a vacancy, that vacancy must be filled by applying the method used to appoint the member who vacated the position.
Section 5: Governance of water boards
(1) The water board shall appoint a chair among its members and adhere to a constitution governing its activities.
(2) Where a water board has failed to perform its functions, NRW may make an order directing the water board to do any act to perform its functions alongside establishing a deadline for compliance.
(3) Where a water board has failed to comply with an order made under (5), the NRW may make an order—
(a) removing local members and making provision for their replacement;
(b) replacing local members with extraordinary members appointed by NRW for no more than a year; or
(c) temporarily transferring a function of the water board to NRW or a relevant local authority.
(4) Each year the water board shall publish and provide to NRW a report outlining the financial position of the water board and its record of adhering to statutory obligations and local and national policy frameworks.
Section 6: Transitional measures
The Schedule shall have effect.
Section 7: Commencement and Short Title
(2) This Act comes into force three months after receiving the Royal Assent.
(3) The short title of this Act is the Water Boards (Wales) Act 2020.
Schedule: Transitional measures
(1) All current internal drainage districts are to be converted to water board districts, with a water board established in each.
(2) Internal drainage boards are to be abolished, with assets, liabilities, and undertakings transferred to the water board in the respective district.
(3) NRW may modify a water board district established under (1) with the aim of including population or areas where it would be required under section 1.
This Bill was written by u/SoSaturnistic and is submitted on behalf of the Welsh Government.
The Stage 1 reading can be found here.
This division will end on the 15th of October.
submitted by BwniCymraeg to MHOCSeneddVote [link] [comments]


2020.10.12 13:00 sharewithme Word of The Hour: calendar

English: calendar
  1. an orderly arrangement of the division of time, adapted to the purposes of civil life, as years, months, weeks, and days
  2. also, a register of the year with its divisions
  3. a tabular statement of the dates of feasts, offices, saints' days, etc., esp. of those which are liable to change yearly according to the varying date of easter
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Translations
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Learn more languages @ https://wordofthehour.org/more
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2020.10.11 02:07 Bevans-12 [Event] Happenings in British Politics, 2020

26/12/20
Overview
 
The last year in British politics has been tumultuous to say the least. Whilst Johnson’s solid majority has provided a sense of stability compared to the turmoil of 2018 and 2019, the Coronavirus pandemic, and the extension of the transition period firmly rocked British politics, to levels not seen since the May premiership. Combined with the turmoil in Scottish politics occurring in the final months of the year, and 2020 has certainly been far more rocky than commentators predicted in January.
 
 
Following the revelations of a cancer diagnosis, the Scottish Labour leader Richard Leonard has stepped down from his position in early November, and paved the way for a leadership election. He was a rather unpopular leader generally in his position, sticking to a Corbynite doctrine despite the party drifting back toward the centre. Many in the Scottish Labour Party wished to see him gone; and his resignation was a convenient way for them to wrangle back control of the party. Anas Sarwar, who ran in the previous election, threw his hat in again, and succeeded in gaining enough MSP nominations to proceed to the next stage. Daniel Johnson, a charismatic rising star in the SNP that had gained considerable press attention in late October after a withering put down of both Ruth Davidson and Nicola Sturgeon in a flurry of attacks in the Scottish Parliament. He too gained enough nominations, and proceeded to the next round. Jenny Mara and Lewis MacDonald also attempted to stand, but failed to gain enough nominations. It was a match between Sarwar and Johnson.
 
After a brief campaign due to the pandemic, the first preference ballot was held. Members saw Sarwar as dragging the party too far to the right, and whilst Johnson was certainly a Starmer-ite, he was not as shamelessly centrist as Sarwar, who performed worse than in 2017. His message fell flat, Whilst Johnson’s flew. Indeed, the media attention laid on Johnson appeared to profit him immensely, appearing on shows such as This Morning, Good Morning Britain and BBC News Scotland, and in all of his appearances he came across professional, enthusiastic and vibrant, perhaps owing to his youth. His policies seemed fresh, relatable, and his commitment to Unionism struck well with many, whereas Sarwar was seen generally as having dated Blairite policies, and being generally out of touch. Johnson managed to gain the left wing of the party due to there being effectively no choice when faced with the centrist Sarwar, and gained many of the centre-left votes due to his charisma and popularity with the electorate in Scotland. The final results were as follows:
 
First Preference Votes
Candidate % of Vote
Daniel Johnson 66.6%
Anas Sarwar 33.4%
 
It was a landslide for Johnson. In the short four week campaign, he was elected leader of the Scottish Labour Party with overwhelming support of the party. The left of the party were generally supportive, and whilst some of the right wing were slightly disquiet about their designated candidate Sarwar not being elected, they were not devastated with the result, as a result of Johnson’s ideological allegiance with Starmer. In recent polls, Labour has ridden off the charisma and media popularity of Johnson, with a 7% jump in the polls, tearing support away from the Scottish Greens and SNP
 
 
In mid November, the SNP were struck by a withering scandal; recordings have emerged of FM Nicola Sturgeon not only admitting that she lied in front of the Scottish Parliament, but also openly telling an aid about details of her plans to obstruct the inquiry into Salmond’s sexual assault allegations. This has not only rocked the party, but Scottish politics as a whole. Vitriolic calls for resignation from all Unionist parties have been flung at the First Minister. Despite an apology and promises to cooperate with any inquiries into her behaviour, Sturgeon is yet to step down. Internally the SNP is ablaze with chaos, confusion and mayhem, with MSPs and MPs unsure as to whether to back their leader through this unquestionably devastating scandal, or call for her to step down. Time will tell how this develops.
 
 
Following the announcement of an extension to the transition period, breaking a key campaign pledge, the Conservative party was thrown into chaos. Not only did they dip in the polls, with working class heartlands being disaffected by Johnson’s so-called ‘Brexit Betrayal’, but Eurosceptic MPs came close to rebellion on hearing the news. Whilst they only suffered a 4% drop in the polls (arguably due to the Coronavirus being seen as a justification for the extension), the party is in peril of a repeat of the late 90s and late 2010s - factionalism and chaos. Shortly following the announcement of the extension, the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Michael Gove, has handed his resignation in to the Prime Minister. Rumours run wild in the press of Gove being conscripted to lead a hard-right eurosceptic revolt against the PM. Naturally, this could all be hearsay, but there is no doubt that Conservative MPs are wildly divided over the move. Centrist, ‘soft’ tories are generally in favour of it, and have come round to supporting Johnson. Meanwhile the more radical Tory MPs are thoroughly discontent. Undoubtedly, there is something nasty brewing on the horizon for the Conservative party. How devastating it will be, its magnitude and effects, are yet to be seen.
 
 
Finally, according to a recent Survation poll, Labour has jumped three points in the most recent Senedd Election polls. Many commentators see this to be a result of the astute leadership of First Minister Drakeford in the face of Coronavirus. Opinion of him in Wales has skyrocketed, and working class communities have returned to Welsh Labour from the Welsh Conservatives following the chaos the party finds itself in. Plaid Cyrmu remains strong in Wales, but it is certain that the Senedd Elections in 2021 won’t be a blowout of Labour expected at the start of 2020, that much is for sure. Increasingly in Wales, Drakeford is seen as a “friendly uncle” according to voters, who has been able to carefully guide the nation through a tumultuous period, politically, socially and economically. The Liberal Democrats have seen a similar small bump in the polls - around 1 to 2 points - following the harrowing economic effects of Coronavirus, which hit Wales particularly hard. Rural opinion is increasingly turning against the Conservatives, with disaffected voters straying back to the Liberal Democrats
 
submitted by Bevans-12 to Geosim [link] [comments]


2020.10.11 01:46 StevenStevens43 The real Gracianus Municeps revealed

The real Gracianus Municeps revealed
King Art Oenfer IV & V:
In my last article, i investigated the identity of Constantine III and his son.
I ended the article with the introduction of Vortigern, and introduced him as the contemporary Gerontius.
However, Vortigern being the same person as the contemporary Gerontius was only how it would appear at first glance.
This article however is going to investigate Vortigen, and who he truly is, and find out if he is still the same person as Gerontius after closer inspection.
It will probably be a good idea to first read the previous article i am referring to, before reading this one, so that one at least has a basic understanding of the characters spoken about, before reading.
The link for the previous article is below.
King Art Oenfer IV & V <<<<< Link for article.
Link for photo
King Arthur
410 AD:
I will begin the investigation with the Roman emperor Honorius, whom in 410 AD, cut his losses with Britain, and removed Britain from the Roman empire.
Defence of Italy#Stilicho_and_the_defense_of_Italy)
By 410, Britain was effectively told to look after its own affairs and expect no aid from Rome.[15]#cite_note-15)
Link for photo#/media/File:JohnWilliam_Waterhouse-The_Favorites_of_the_Emperor_Honorius-_1883.jpg)
Honorius during Roman famine
Guitelin:
Now, according to Geoffrey's "tale" Guitelin, the archbishop of Londinium, is desperate to organise the islands defences, and so arranged for continental soldiers to come to Britain.
It would be very likely that those continental soldiers were the Saxons that were said to have invaded Britain during this period, in the previous article.
It would perhaps also be likely that Gorentius turned and high footed it back to Britain the second that it was announced that Honorius had cut his ties with Britain, in order to make sure that they, and not the constantines, were going to be the new kings of this island, even though it was the Constantines that were the ones at the front fighting for this freedom.
Obviously Constantine III had more than simply freeing Britain.
He wanted to be Roman emperor as well as King of Britain.
I do understand this.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Geoffrey mentions a similar tale just before that episode, however, which may be an unintentional duplication. Just after the Romans leave, the archbishop of London is put forward by the representatives of Britain to organise the island's defences. To do so, he arranges for continental soldiers to come to Britain. The name of the bishop is Guitelin,
Link for photo
Vortigern watching the Arian v Pagan battle
Archbishop of London:
Now, regards to the Archbishop of London, i got the impression from first glance, that this would be the same person as Vortigern/Gerontius, though was not quite sure why.
Though i must point out, that contemporary historians and scholars do actually appear to agree with my initial suspicions.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
and that the tale of Guithelinus the archbishop might possibly give some insight into the background of Vortigern before his acquisition of power.
Link for photo
Vortigerns wife Rowana
Title:
They have kind of concluded that Vortigern is actually a title, rather than a name, and this might be why Vortigern is also known by different names.
Vortigern as a title rather than a personal name
It is occasionally suggested by scholars that Vortigern could be a title rather than a personal name.
Vitalinus:
Apparently, this Guithelin is also known elsewhere as Vitalinus, and disappears from the story as soon as Vortigern arrives, which obviously suggests to contemporaries that this is more proof they are the same person.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
This Guithelin/Vitalinus disappears from the story as soon as Vortigern arrives.
Final conclusion:
And from this, the historians and scholars reach their final conclusion, that Geoffrey duplicated the story from the invitation of the Saxons.
Though imao, their calculations are missing a few key figures.
How on earth did they come up with that sum?
Geoffrey of Monmouth
All these coincidences imply that Geoffrey duplicated the story of the invitation of the Saxons
Maximus of Hispania:
Now, i am just not convinced that the historians and scholars have quite hit the mark.
So what i did, is i went back to the moment that Gerontius turned traitor and abandoned the overthrow attempt in order to instead usurp the British throne.
March on Italy#March_on_Italy)
Constantine prepared to send his son Constans back to deal with this crisis when word came that his general Gerontius had rebelled, raising his relative, Maximus of Hispania, as co-emperor.[10]#cite_note-Birley,_pg._460-10)
Link for photo#/media/File:Siliqua_Constantine_III-RIC_1355.jpg)
Constantine III coin
Father:
And this, is where it starts to make sense.
Gerontius was actually believed to be the father of Maximus Tyrannus.
Maximus of Hispania
Maximus, also called Maximus Tyrannus, was a Roman usurper (409 – 411) in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal). He had been elected by general Gerontius), who might have been his father.
Link for photo
Maximus Tyrannus coin
Procopius:
So when Procopius said "from that time onwards it remained under the rule of tyrants, he perhaps did literally mean Tyrannus's.
Surrender and execution#Surrender_and_execution)
As the historian Procopius later explained, "from that time onwards it remained under [the rule] of tyrants."[27]#cite_note-27)
Link for photo
Procopius
Gracianus Municeps:
It is becoming quite apparent that Gerontius is infact Gracianus Municeps.
Maximus of Hispania
Relations between the usurper Constantine III) and his general Gerontius, who had been sent to Hispania, had been deteriorating through the year 409. When Constantine sent an army under his son and heir Constans), Gerontius mutinied and installed Maximus in the late summer of 410.[1]
Word for word what Geoffrey said:
You see, Gracian Municeps, just like Gerontius, usurped the throne of Britain, but was replaced by Constantine II, which, is actually correct.
Gracianus, just like Gerontius, siezed the crown of Britain, and began terrorising civilians.
And he was assassinated, just like Gerontius.
Gracian Municeps
Gracianus served under Maximus during his campaigns in Rome and Germany, and was sent to Britain to defeat Wanius and Melga, the kings of the Picts and Huns respectively. He defeated the armies of both kings immediately upon arrival, ejecting them to Ireland. Soon after, word came that Maximus had died at the hands of either a supporter of the late Roman Emperor Gratian or by one of Gracianus Municeps' own followers. Despite mention previously made by Geoffrey of Monmouth of Dionotus, regent in Maximus' absence and king of Cornwall, Gracianus seized the crown of Britain and began a reign of terror throughout the island but soon certain plebs banded together and assassinated him. This led to a period of instability when news of his demise reached Britain's enemies, but he was eventually succeeded by Constantine II of Britain),
Suicide:
And here below in the Roman accounts, we have Gerontus's soldiers desert him and turn on him, and he committed suicide, just the same Gracianus municeps.
Maximus of Hispania
Gerontius' soldiers deserted him for the imperial general. Gerontius retired to Hispania, and when his remaining troops turned on him, committed suicide.[3]
Maximus II:
Therefore, Vortigern is not Gerontus, but in fact Gerontus son, Maximus.
And Maximus also appears to make way for a Mximus the second, who briefly rules before being executed.
Maximus of Hispania
The remainder of the recorded history of this shadowy figure becomes even more murky. He is commonly identified with a second Maximus who started his rebellion in Hispania between July 419 and February 421.[5] According to Marcellinus Comes, this Maximus was brought to Rome where he was displayed and executed, along with one Jovinianus, around 23 January 422,
Vortimer:
And does this support Geoffrey's 2tales"?
You bet it does.
Read below.
Geoffrey says that Vortigern was succeeded briefly by his son Vortimer, only to assume the throne again when Vortimer is killed.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Geoffrey adds that Vortigern was succeeded briefly by his son Vortimer, as does the Historia Brittonum, only to assume the throne again when Vortimer is killed.
Maxima Caesariensis:
I have also found out why i found it so hard to work out the identity of Gracianus Municeps.
It is because modern day historians and scholars had me transfixed on this Magnus Maximus Roman emperor, as every time a Maximus is mentioned in legends, they automatically attribute it to Magnus Maximus, and therefore i was basically, looking in the wrong place.
In actual fact, back during this period, the Maximus's were one of the elite families of the known world.
In fact, they had a province in Britain named after them, in the area that would now be London.
And it turns out that pretty much every single ruler of this area is named Maximus.
Maxima Caesariensis
Maxima Caesariensis (Latin for "The Caesarian) province of Maximus"), also known as Britannia Maxima, was one of the provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" created during the Diocletian Reforms at the end of the 3rd century.[1] It was probably created after the defeat of the usurper Allectus by Constantius Chlorus in ad 296 and was mentioned in the c. 312 Verona List of the Roman provinces. Its position and capital remain uncertain, although it was probably adjacent to Flavia Caesariensis. On the basis of its governor's eventual consular rank, it is now usually considered to have consisted of Augusta or Londinium (London) and southeastern England.[why?]
Link for photo

Maxima Caesariensis
Maximus Tyrannus:
Now, as you will be aware from reading the previous article i linked too, Vortigern is almost definitely Maximus Tyrannus, and his son Vortimer, is also most definitely Maximus Tyrannus, but, the son of Maximus Tyrannus.
Maximus of Hispania
Maximus, also called Maximus Tyrannus, was a Roman usurper (409 – 411) in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal). He had been elected by general Gerontius), who might have been his father.
Link for photo

Maximus Tyrannus coin
Son:
And as i revealed in previous article, he appears to have had a son of same name.
Maximus of Hispania
He is commonly identified with a second Maximus who started his rebellion in Hispania between July 419 and February 421.[5] According to Marcellinus Comes, this Maximus was brought to Rome where he was displayed and executed, along with one Jovinianus, around 23 January 422, during Honorius' tricennalia. Kulikowski supports this identification, explaining that he was defeated and captured by the comes Asterius), for which achievement Asterius was rewarded with the Patriciate.[6]
Gildas:
Now here is what i find amusing.
Historians and scholars whilst debunking the legends, "actually attribute one of the claiments with calling Vortigern a Tyrannus".
But they completely misunderstand this as Gildas calling him a usurper.
Now whilst Gildas was indeed calling him a usurper, that is clearly not what he meant by "Tyrannus".
He meant the usurper Vortigern Tyrannus.
Usurper (Tyrannus).
Gildas
He is termed a usurper (tyrannus)
Bede:
Now Bede even manages to date when Vortigerns rule, began.
449 AD apparently.
Bede
Bede also supplies the date, 449,
Roman emperors:
However, professors, historians and scholars alike dispute this, because quite simply, Roman emperors were in rulership during this period.
Bede
which was traditionally accepted but has been considered suspect since the late 20th century: "Marcian being made emperor with Valentinian, and the forty-sixth from Augustus, ruled the empire seven years.
411 AD:
They say this, despite the fact that after the execution of Constantine II of Britain in 411 AD, Roman rule never returned to Britain.
Surrender and execution#Surrender_and_execution)
Athaulf the Visigoth later suppressed the revolt of Jovinus.[citation needed] Roman rule never returned to Britain after the death of Constantine III. As the historian Procopius later explained, "from that time onwards it remained under [the rule] of tyrants."[27]#cite_note-27)
Link for photo#/media/File:Siliqua_Constantine_III-RIC_1355.jpg)
23rd January 422 AD:
Yet, we know pretty much for a fact that Vortigern ruled from Constantine III's execution, up until July 419 AD, and retook the throne upon Vortimer Tyrannus's death in around 23rd January 422 AD.
So quite a bit earlier than Bede is speculating.
And much much earlier than what scholars and historians must be speculating if they think Britain was under Roman kingship right up until the visigoth and Hunnic sack.
Maximus of Hispania
He is commonly identified with a second Maximus who started his rebellion in Hispania between July 419 and February 421.[5] According to Marcellinus Comes, this Maximus was brought to Rome where he was displayed and executed, along with one Jovinianus, around 23 January 422,
Saxons:
According to legend, the reason for Vortimers revolt, was because he disagreed with his fathers decision to ally himself with the Saxons, and therefore led a revolt against the Saxons.
Vortimer
Vortimer (Old Welsh Guorthemir, Welsh: Gwerthefyr), also known as Saint Vortimer (Welsh: Gwerthefyr Fendigaid, lit. "Vortimer the Blessed"), is a figure in British tradition, a son of the 5th-century Britonnic) ruler Vortigern. He is remembered for his fierce opposition to his father's Saxon allies. In Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, he overthrows his father and reigns as King of Britain for a brief period before his death restores Vortigern to power.
Brittany:
And finally, if historians want to say, but these people were from Hispania.
No, they were from the Brythonic administration centres which were first set up during this period for the wars.
They later turned in to a refuge for the Romano-Brits.
Link for photo
Brythonic administration centres

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.10.11 00:34 Bit_Butt These lowly courtiers of North Wales in the 1066 starting date are actually the ancestors of the Tudors, they even have Henry VII's heraldry (The Welsh Flag)

These lowly courtiers of North Wales in the 1066 starting date are actually the ancestors of the Tudors, they even have Henry VII's heraldry (The Welsh Flag) submitted by Bit_Butt to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]


2020.10.11 00:22 Guards_Armoured_Arma [A3][WW2][Recruiting] Guards Armoured Division

[A3][WW2][Recruiting] Guards Armoured Division

Introduction

https://preview.redd.it/hgcdl1crdcs51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=a5a6070c71518dd4ddf08f51661c3f3732f78801
The Guards Armoured Division is a serious attitude British World War II milsim unit.
Our primary focuses are teamwork, historical accuracy, operational realism and enjoyable experience. Roots of the unit date back to May 2017.
To describe our unit the best, we’re a unit that is heavily influenced by history of the real Guards Armoured Division during World War II. Medium-Large Sized unit, fielding more than 30 members weekly. Feedback is heavily valued in order to shape the unit for us all to enjoy. Ranks are given according to their need and leadership skills, rather than as a reward for good performance. We have different and enjoyable supportive branches to join that won't completely take your infantry experience. Many opportunities to conduct historical operations focused on various nations. Relaxed attendance, operational seriousness. New player friendly.

Ranks and roles

Motor Platoon:
Motor Infantry Sections are the main backbone of our operations. They're operating out of their designated vehicles (M5 Halftracks, Bren Carriers & others, depending on Operation setting) and they're composed of two Groups. There are three in a regular Platoon.
HQ Section is the section which commands the Motor Platoon in the field and coordinates the operation with the Armoured Troop and Carrier Platoon. This usually holds 6-7 men, and sometimes holds a Mortar / PIAT detachment depending on the situation.
Our Motor Platoon represents the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards in main operations.
Carrier Platoon:
Carrier Platoon is an Infantry Section operating in smaller groups and utilizing the nimble Universal Carriers. They often carry out Scouting duties before major engagements. On foot, without their Universal Carriers, these lads still create a solid threat to the enemy troops, and are in no way less prepared for contact than their Halftracked counterparts.
Our Carrier Platoon represents the 1st Battalion, Welsh Guards in main operations.
Armoured Troop:
Armoured Troops are utilized in majority of our operations, using a wide variety of vehicles depending on their task. (Such as Sherman I or Sherman Vc Firefly or Stuart VI) Their primary role in the main operations is to take the vanguard in major advances, but may also be deployed as Armoured Reconnaissance Troop if the situation requires it.
Our Armoured Troop represents the 2nd (Armoured) Battalion, Grenadier Guards in main operations.
Royal Army Medical Corps:
Our medical branch. Their task is to keep everyone in the Battlegroup up in good shape and providing medical service.

Guards Armoured Division during \"The Great Swan\", 1944.

Missions

Our attendance policy is far from being strict. We are aware of the real life issues that everybody may have at any chosen point of their life, as well as their regular out-of-game duties. We can understand whenever somebody isn’t able to play the whole week due to their work schedule.
Our schedule:

Day Hour Type Notes
Wednesday 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST Bonus mission Not part of the regular schedule. Announced beforehand.
Friday 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST Main Mission Main missions, mostly cover Guards Armoured Division.
Saturday 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST Bonus mission Not part of the regular schedule. Announced beforehand.
Sunday 7 PM BST / 8 PM CEST / 2 PM EST Training / Exercise Not part of the regular schedule.

Guards Armoured Division advancing towards Veghel, Operation Market Garden.

Requirements & joining

It is required that applicants are at age of at least 15 and have a working microphone. We expect that the applicants can act mature and serious during the operations, as well as respectful towards the other members of the unit throughout the whole stay.
If you’re willing to join - make sure to join our Discord found in Links & media part of this post.
A new member starts at the rank of Recruit. Recruits are gentlemen that had just joined the unit and hadn't completed their basic training course yet.
Recruits have low priority in different matters - Guardsmen have priority over them. Basic special (non-branch) roles such as machine gunners can be taken as long as a Guardsman ranked member isn't interested in filling that position during the operation.
A recruit should never be afraid to ask different game related matters, such as procedures or game mechanics.

Links & media

Teamspeak: guards.tsdns.pl
Discord: https://discord.gg/BbMgf2W
Steam group: https://steamcommunity.com/groups/guardsad
Modpack: https://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=1936939163
Twitter: https://twitter.com/A3GuardsAD
submitted by Guards_Armoured_Arma to FindAUnit [link] [comments]


'I love a cwtch': Luke Evans teaches us Welsh slang - YouTube I went on a date with my mom's best friend - YouTube Smwch Dating - YouTube Will These Welsh Romantics Fall For Each Other?  First ... Funny welsh man - YouTube You Know You're Dating a Swiss Woman When... - YouTube The sound of Wales - YouTube

11 Reasons Why You Should Date a Welsh Person

  1. 'I love a cwtch': Luke Evans teaches us Welsh slang - YouTube
  2. I went on a date with my mom's best friend - YouTube
  3. Smwch Dating - YouTube
  4. Will These Welsh Romantics Fall For Each Other? First ...
  5. Funny welsh man - YouTube
  6. You Know You're Dating a Swiss Woman When... - YouTube
  7. The sound of Wales - YouTube
  8. Things Not To Say To Welsh People - YouTube

Enjoy our Welsh videos, specially made for Welsh singles, living in Wales. Thanks from all of us at the Smwch Dating in Wales site. I was proper stressed out one day as i was supposed to be working but was right in the middle of a family crisis. My stupid women of a wife had ran over my d... Cheese, chocolate and watches. This video isn't about those.. But if you wanna know what it's like dating that Swiss woman - from her badass multilingual ski... What happens when you get two Welshies in a studio? We get them to speak in Welsh slang, of course! Lucy Ford sat down with The Alienist star Luke Evans, and... If you're from Wales, you’ll have encountered all sorts of assumptions and jokes simply based on where you're from. Here, eight Welsh people talk about the m... Yeah I know.. this isn't normal lol (DISCLAIMER: This was filmed a few weeks ago before the quarantine started. Keep practicing social distancing) Watch the ... 'The sound of Wales' -- How the Welsh language is fascinating to visitors and why making the smallest effort with the language can add to the visitor experie... Will these Welsh romantics fall for each other? Or will the date end in heartbreak? How do you know if a date is going well- what signs do you look for? SU...